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CR
Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A4bcde 
Endangered A4bcde;C1+2a(ii) 
Vulnerable A4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 518.5 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,830,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 9 good
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 9000-13000 medium Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 9000-13000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18 - - -
Population justification: The breeding population was last estimated in 2009 at 3,193 breeding pairs (CMA 2010). However, winter at-sea surveys along the Iberian Shelf as part of the LIFE project to identify marine Important Bird Areas produced an estimate of 25,000-30,000 individuals (Arcos 2011b), and counts of >18,000 birds past Gibraltar in May-July 2008 were extrapolated to a total of 20,000-25,000 individuals (Arroyo et al. 2011). These data are difficult to reconcile, but a precautionary estimate of 9,000-13,000 mature individuals is considered appropriate (Arcos 2011b, Arcos et al. 2011). This is roughly equivalent to 13,000-20,000 individuals in total.
Trend justification: Using the previous population estimate of 2,000-2,400 breeding pairs, Oro et al. (2004) estimate a mean decline of 7.4% per year and a mean extinction time, as estimated by population viability analysis, of just over 40 years. This equates to an ongoing population decline of more than 80% in three generations (54 years). However, an updated population viability analysis is necessary to re-evaluate the population trend, taking into account the new population estimate and improved demographic data (particularly adult survivability estimates). While the new information on population size could smooth the decreasing trend, adult survival could be even lower than assumed by Oro et al. (2004), given that their analysis did not take into account colonies subject to predation (Arcos 2011a).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Unknown Extant        
Algeria Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Unknown Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Unknown Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Unknown Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Unknown Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes  
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Unknown Extant        
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Vagrant Extant        
Libya Unknown Extant        
Malta Unknown Extant        
Monaco Unknown Extant        
Montenegro Unknown Extant        
Morocco Native Extant       Yes
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Slovenia Unknown Extant        
Spain Native Extant Yes      
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar site factsheet
Portugal Berlengas site factsheet
Portugal Cabo Raso site factsheet
Portugal Figueira da Foz site factsheet
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Norte de Mallorca site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Bahía de Almería site factsheet
Spain Bahía de Málaga - Cerro Gordo site factsheet
Spain Cape Barbaria site factsheet
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary site factsheet
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Entorno marino de las rías Baixas site factsheet
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar site factsheet
Spain Golfo de Cádiz site factsheet
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza) site factsheet
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell site factsheet
Spain La Mola of Formentera site factsheet
Spain Llobregat delta site factsheet
Spain Mar del Empordà site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain Plataforma - Talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao site factsheet
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes site factsheet
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles site factsheet
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos site factsheet
Spain Tagomago island site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Common Genet (Genetta genetta) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy / Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Puffinus mauretanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Procellariidae (Petrels, Shearwaters)
Species name author Lowe, 1921
Population size 9000-13000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,830,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species