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Sao Francisco Sparrow Arremon franciscanus

Justification
This species is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline, owing to the loss and degradation of caatinga habitats, thus, although its range is larger than previously estimated, it remains listed as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
The genus Arremon has been expanded following SACC (2007) to include the genera Arremon, Buarremon and Lysurus.

Identification
15cm. An olive, black and white sparrow of the undergrowth. Black head with greyish centre of crown and long white superciliary. Black chin. Upper neck greyish. Rest of upperparts, wings and tail olivaceous, brighter on bend of wing. Underparts whitish washed greyish on sides of belly. Bold black patch next to shoulder, on sides of breast. Yellowish bill with bold black culmen. Similar spp. Resembles the Half-collared Sparrow A. semitorquatus which has more extensive black on breast and only the mandible yellow. It is also more extensively shaded dark grey on sides of belly. Pectoral Sparrow A. taciturnus has a complete breast band. Voice A complex series of three high pitched phrases, the last being a trill. Hints Hops in the dense understorey, where easily found following its calls.

Distribution and population
Arremon franciscanus has a patchy distribution over a wide area of central Bahia and north Minas Gerais, Brazil. It seems to be uncommon to locally fairly common in suitable habitat.

Population justification
The population may exceed 10,000 mature individuals, thus it is suspected to number 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 15,000-30,000 individuals in total; however, more research is required.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline, owing to the loss and degradation of caatinga scrublands, although data are lacking on the magnitude of these effects.

Ecology
This species occurs in thick scrub 'caatinga', mainly in areas adjacent to patches of arboreal caatinga (Raposo 1997, Parrini et al. 1999).

Threats
The whole region in which caatinga habitats occur has suffered the impact of human settlement over a long period, and there has been extensive conversion to agriculture and cattle-ranching, and associated fires. The area around the type-locality is subject to a large irrigation scheme, which will possibly lead to habitat loss and fragmentation (Raposo 1997, J. Mazar Barnett in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Chapada Diamantina National Park and Peruaçú Environmental Protection Area, but neither provide de facto protection (Parrini et al. 1999, J. Mazar Barnett in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Surveys are urgently required to delineate the full range of this species and identify the most suitable sites for protection. Conduct ecological studies to determine year-round habitat requirements. Improve the active protection of Chapada Diamantina National Park and Peruaçú Environmental Protection Area. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Christie, D. 2011. Handbook of the birds of the world vol. 16: Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Parrini, R.; Raposo, M. A.; Pacheco, J. F.; Carvalhaes, A. M. P.; Melo, T. A. J.; Fonseca, P. S. M.; Minns, J. C. 1999. Birds of the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Cotinga 11: 86-95.

Raposo, M. A. 1997. A new species of Arremon (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) from Brazil. Ararajuba 5(1): 3-9.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Mazar Barnett, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Arremon franciscanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sao Francisco sparrow (Arremon franciscanus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author Raposo, 1997
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 56,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species