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NR
 Rhea pennata

This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Rhea pennata and R. tarapacensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as R. pennata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Synonym(s)
Pterocnemia pennata Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Pterocnemia pennata , Pterocnemis pennata Stotz et al. (1996), Pterocnemis pennata , Rhea pennata pennata Collar et al. (1994), Rhea pennata pennata Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Distribution and population
Rhea pennata occurs in three subspecies: pennata in south Chile, west-central and south Argentina, with an introduced population in north Tierra del Fuego; tarapacensis in north Chile; and garleppi in south Peru, south-west Bolivia and north-west Argentina. All populations have declined markedly and the northern subspecies are in serious danger of extinction (Folch 1992). The combined population of tarapacensis and garleppi is estimated at several hundred birds, with the healthiest populations in Argentina (densities at two sites of 2-5 birds/km2) (Chebez 1994). In 1983, the Peruvian population was estimated at 18 individuals, with very low numbers in north Chile (principally in Lauca National Park [A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999]) and on the altiplano in Bolivia.

Ecology
The nominate subspecies inhabits steppe, shrubland, shrub-steppe and mallines (successional wetlands with bog, meadows and ponds) (Bellis et al. 2006), up to 1,500 m, generally breeding in upland areas with bunch-grass. The northern subspecies are found in desertic salt puna, pumice flats, upland bogs and tola (Lepidophyllum) heath in altiplano at 3,000-4,500 m, down to 1,500 m in the south.


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I (except nominate race, which is on Appendix II). Conservation Actions Proposed
Develop campaigns to raise awareness and reduce hunting, egg-collecting and the domestication of wild immature birds. Prevent illegal hunting and egg-collecting, while developing alternative sustainable harvesting programmes (Barri et al. 2008b). Harvest "orphan eggs" (eggs sporadically laid outside nests) for use in captive breeding and reintroduction programmes (Barri et al. 2008a). Maintain "mallín" (meadow) habitats in adequate condition as nesting sites (Bellis et al. 2006, Barri et al. 2008b, Barri et al. 2009). Monitor remaining populations of tarapacensis and garleppi.

References
Barri, F. R., Martella, M. B. and Navarro, J. L. 2008. Characteristics, abundance and fertility of orphan eggs of the Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia-Rhea-pennata pennata): implications for conservation. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 285-288.

Barri, F. R., Martella, M. B. and Navarro, J. L. 2008. Characteristics, abundance and fertility of orphan eggs of the Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia-Rhea-pennata pennata): implications for conservation. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 285-288.

Barri, F. R., Martella, M. B. and Navarro, J. L. 2008. Characteristics, abundance and fertility of orphan eggs of the Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia-Rhea-pennata pennata): implications for conservation. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 285-288.

Barri, F. R.; Martella, M. B.; Navarro, J. L. 2009. Nest-site habitat selection by Lesser Rheas (Rhea pennata pennata) in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Ornithology 150(2): 511-514.

Bellis, L. M.; Navarro, J. L.; Vignolo, P. E.; Martella, M. B. 2006. Habitat preferences of Lesser Rheas in Argentine Patagonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(9): 3065-3075.

Chebez, J. C. 1994. Los que se van: especies argentinas en peligro. Albatros, Buenos Aires.

Folch, A. 1992. Rheidai (Rheas). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 84-89. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Rocha O., O.; Quiroga, C. 1996. Aves. In: Ergueta, S.; de Morales, C. (ed.), Libro Rojo de los vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 95-164. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, La Paz.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Symes, A., Mazar Barnett, J., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.

Contributors
Knapton, B., Pearman, M. & Jaramillo, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Rhea pennata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Lesser rhea (Rhea pennata) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Not Recognised
Family Rheidae (Rheas)
Species name author d'Orbigny, 1834