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Great Snipe Gallinago media

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,130,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,130,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000-700000 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -
Population justification: There are an estimated 13,000-25,000 mature individuals in Scandinavia (roughly equivalent to 15,000-40,000 total individuals) (J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007) and 450,000-1,000,000 individuals in W Siberia and NE Europe (V. Morozov in litt. 2007).
Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, particularly in the eastern population, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Unknown Extant      
Albania Native Extant     Yes
Algeria Native Extant     Yes
Angola Native Extant   Yes  
Armenia Native Extant     Yes
Austria Unknown Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Benin Native Extant   Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant     Yes
Botswana Native Extant   Yes  
British Indian Ocean Territory Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant   Yes  
Burundi Native Extant   Yes  
Cameroon Native Extant   Yes  
Central African Republic Native Extant   Yes Yes
Chad Native Extant   Yes  
Congo Native Extant   Yes  
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant   Yes  
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Egypt Native Extant     Yes
Equatorial Guinea Unknown Extant   Yes Yes
Eritrea Native Extant     Yes
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Finland Native Extant Yes    
France Native Extant     Yes
Gabon Native Extant   Yes  
Gambia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant     Yes
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant   Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
India Vagrant Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant     Yes
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Liberia Native Extant   Yes  
Libya Native Extant     Yes
Liechtenstein Unknown Extant     Yes
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malawi Native Extant   Yes  
Mali Native Extant   Yes  
Malta Native Extant     Yes
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant   Yes Yes
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant   Yes  
Myanmar Vagrant Extant      
Namibia Native Extant   Yes  
Netherlands Vagrant Extinct      
Nigeria Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Vagrant Extant     Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant   Yes  
Serbia Native Extant     Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant   Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes
Somalia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
South Africa Native Extant   Yes  
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes
Switzerland Unknown Extant     Yes
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Tanzania Native Extant   Yes  
Togo Native Extant   Yes  
Tunisia Native Extant     Yes
Turkey Native Extant     Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes
Uganda Native Extant   Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant     Yes
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes
Zambia Native Extant   Yes  
Zimbabwe Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Amasia site factsheet
Belarus Al'manskija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Bierazino site factsheet
Belarus Brody site factsheet
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary site factsheet
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina site factsheet
Belarus Hronava site factsheet
Belarus Liasnaja river site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Prypiackija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Sož floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Kärevere site factsheet
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe site factsheet
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Struuga floodplain site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Ethiopia Sululta plain site factsheet
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge site factsheet
Kenya Busia grasslands site factsheet
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands site factsheet
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains site factsheet
Latvia Burga meadows site factsheet
Latvia Dviete flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Kuja site factsheet
Latvia Ruja flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Vidusburtnieks site factsheet
Latvia Ziemelgauja site factsheet
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded meadows near Sausgalviai settlement site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Svyla River valley site factsheet
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain site factsheet
Mozambique Gorongosa Mountain and National Park site factsheet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system site factsheet
Norway Dovrefjell site factsheet
Norway Hardangervidda site factsheet
Norway Nordre Øyeren and Sørumsneset site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes site factsheet
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin site factsheet
Poland Lower Narew River Valley site factsheet
Poland Narew river gaps site factsheet
Poland Szyszla River Valley site factsheet
Poland Tyszowce Site site factsheet
Poland Upper Narew River Valley site factsheet
Poland Wizna Swamps site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2 site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) "Korodyn'k Creek" Great Snipe lek site factsheet
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulgarski site factsheet
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Druzhinnoye lake and its outskirts site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga site factsheet
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas) site factsheet
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain site factsheet
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs site factsheet
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (Verestovo lake) site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain site factsheet
Russia (European) Yugyd Va site factsheet
Russia (European) Zavidovo Nature Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish-ponds site factsheet
Sweden Frostviken site factsheet
Sweden Middagsfjället - Dörrshöjden site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves site factsheet
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park site factsheet
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George site factsheet
Uganda Semliki National Park site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Mzha river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Kolky village) site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Turiya river valley site factsheet
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps site factsheet
Zambia Chisamba site factsheet
Zambia Chitunta Plain site factsheet
Zambia Hillwood site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Kafue National Park site factsheet
Zambia Kalungwishi site factsheet
Zambia Lavushi Manda National Park site factsheet
Zambia Nkanga River Conservation Area site factsheet
Zambia Saise River site factsheet
Zambia Shiwa Ng'andu site factsheet
Zambia South Luangwa National Park site factsheet
Zambia Uningi Pans site factsheet
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land unset non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gallinago media. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and allies)
Species name author (Latham, 1787)
Population size 300000-700000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,130,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species