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Great Snipe Gallinago media
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2015 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,130,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 80000-660000 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -
Population justification: Its population size is poorly known, with estimates varying from c. 118,000-1,051,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012) to 450,000-1,000,000 individuals (V. Morozov in litt. 2007).
Trend justification: The overall trend is thought to be decreasing. Recently published data suggests that the European breeding population has probably declined overall by only c. 5-15% over the last three generations (14.4 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 4.8 years) (BirdLife International 2015). This trend is driven by the Russian population, which comprises >80% of the European population and is estimated to have declined by c. 5-10% during 2001-2012. Many national populations in central and eastern Europe are still declining. Data from Asian Russia is limited but it is thought that the population there may be declining (R. Ekblom in litt. 2015, V. Morozov per A. Mischenko in litt. 2015), and overall a moderately rapid reduction is still suspected.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Unknown Extant        
Albania Native Extant     Yes  
Algeria Native Extant     Yes  
Angola Native Extant   Yes    
Armenia Native Extant     Yes  
Austria Unknown Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes  
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Benin Native Extant   Yes    
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant     Yes  
Botswana Native Extant   Yes    
British Indian Ocean Territory Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant   Yes    
Burundi Native Extant   Yes    
Cameroon Native Extant   Yes    
Central African Republic Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Chad Native Extant   Yes    
Congo Native Extant   Yes    
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant   Yes    
Croatia Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes  
Denmark Native Extant     Yes  
Egypt Native Extant     Yes  
Equatorial Guinea Unknown Extant   Yes Yes  
Eritrea Native Extant     Yes  
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Finland Native Extant Yes      
France Native Extant     Yes  
Gabon Native Extant   Yes    
Gambia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Georgia Native Extant     Yes  
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Guinea Native Extant       Yes
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant     Yes  
India Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes  
Iraq Native Extant     Yes  
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant     Yes  
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Liberia Native Extant   Yes    
Libya Native Extant     Yes  
Liechtenstein Unknown Extant     Yes  
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malawi Native Extant   Yes    
Mali Native Extant   Yes    
Malta Native Extant     Yes  
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes  
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant   Yes    
Myanmar Vagrant Extant        
Namibia Native Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Vagrant Extinct        
Nigeria Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Native Extant   Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant     Yes  
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant   Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes  
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes  
Somalia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
South Africa Native Extant   Yes    
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Switzerland Unknown Extant     Yes  
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Tanzania Native Extant   Yes    
Togo Native Extant   Yes    
Tunisia Native Extant     Yes  
Turkey Native Extant     Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Uganda Native Extant   Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant     Yes  
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Zambia Native Extant   Yes    
Zimbabwe Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Amasia site factsheet
Belarus Al'manskija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Bierazino site factsheet
Belarus Brody site factsheet
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary site factsheet
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina site factsheet
Belarus Hronava site factsheet
Belarus Liasnaja river site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Prypiackija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Sož floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Kärevere site factsheet
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe site factsheet
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste site factsheet
Estonia Soomaa site factsheet
Estonia Struuga floodplain site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Ethiopia Sululta plain site factsheet
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge site factsheet
Georgia Chorokhi Delta site factsheet
Kenya Busia grasslands site factsheet
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands site factsheet
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains site factsheet
Latvia Burga meadows site factsheet
Latvia Dviete flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Kuja site factsheet
Latvia Ruja flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain site factsheet
Latvia Vidusburtnieks site factsheet
Latvia Ziemelgauja site factsheet
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Flooded meadows near Sausgalviai settlement site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Svyla River valley site factsheet
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain site factsheet
Mozambique Gorongosa Mountain and National Park site factsheet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system site factsheet
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella site factsheet
Norway Dovrefjell site factsheet
Norway Hardangervidda site factsheet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset site factsheet
Norway Øvre Forra site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes site factsheet
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin site factsheet
Poland Lower Narew River Valley site factsheet
Poland Narew river gaps site factsheet
Poland Szyszla River Valley site factsheet
Poland Tyszowce Site site factsheet
Poland Upper Narew River Valley site factsheet
Poland Wizna Swamps site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2 site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulgarski site factsheet
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Druzhinnoe lake and its outskirts site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga site factsheet
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas) site factsheet
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain site factsheet
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Korodyn'k Creek Great Snipe Lek site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs site factsheet
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo) site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain site factsheet
Russia (European) Yugyd Va site factsheet
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds site factsheet
Sweden Frostviken site factsheet
Sweden Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien site factsheet
Sweden Middagsfjället - Dörrshöjden site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
Sweden Vindelfjällen mountains (including Lake Tärnasjön) site factsheet
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves site factsheet
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park site factsheet
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George site factsheet
Uganda Semliki National Park site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Mzha river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Kolky village) site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Turiya river valley site factsheet
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps site factsheet
Zambia Barotse Floodplains site factsheet
Zambia Chisamba site factsheet
Zambia Chitunta Plain site factsheet
Zambia Hillwood site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Kafue National Park site factsheet
Zambia Kalungwishi site factsheet
Zambia Lavushi Manda National Park site factsheet
Zambia Nkanga River Conservation Area site factsheet
Zambia Saise River site factsheet
Zambia Shiwa Ng'andu site factsheet
Zambia South Luangwa National Park site factsheet
Zambia Uningi Pans site factsheet
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Marginal non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic Suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Major non-breeding
Savanna Dry Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal Suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands Major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Gallinago media. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Snipes, Phalaropes)
Species name author (Latham, 1787)
Population size 80000-660000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,130,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment