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Caucasian Grouse Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi

Justification
This species has been reclassified as Near Threatened owing to declines that are projected to occur owing to road construction for tourism development. Although population trends in parts of the species range are unclear, the overall rate of decline is projected to increase owing to increased hunting, grazing and wood cutting, as well as habitat fragmentation

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Tetrao.

Synonym(s)
Tetrao mlokosiewiczi Taczanowski, 1875

Distribution and population
Tetrao mlokosiewiczi is endemic to the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains, where there are thought to be some 68,000-84,300 individuals spread between Russia (15,000-50,000 individuals), Georgia (40,000-50,000 individuals), Turkey (3,000-4,500 individuals), Armenia (400-800 individuals), Azerbaijan (1,000-1,500 breeding individuals) and Iran (less than 500 individuals) (Gokhelashvili et al. 2003; T. Sviridova in litt. 2000;  BirdLife International 2004; S. Klaus in litt. 2005; Khosravifard in litt. 2007; Sultanov 2006; Storch in press). Population estimates have been very variable and data are patchy, partially due to political unrest which has hampered data collection on populations, trends and threats. Spatial modelling has led to considerably lower population estimates: the global population has recently been estimated at 30,203-63,034 individuals based on extent of suitable habitat in range countries (Gavashelishvili and Javakhishvili 2010); conversely, in Turkey the population was thought to perhaps be as low as 1,000 individuals, but based on spatial modelling, may comprise over 4,800 individuals (Gottschalk et al. 2007). Where trend estimates for 1990-2000 are available they tend to show that the population is in decline (Armenia, 10-19%, Azerbaijan, 20-29% and Turkey, 0-19%) and although in Russia the population is apparently stable, rates of decline are widely predicted to increase.

Population justification
In Europe (which covers more than 95% of the breeding range), the population is estimated to number 60,000-108,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Population declines, suspected to be moderate over the last ten years, are expected to increase significantly in the near future, owing to increased hunting, habitat degradation and fragmentation brought about by the creation of new roads.

Ecology
It is found in subalpine and alpine meadows, on north-facing slopes with Rhododendron and juniper Juniperus, and on the edge of birch forest in spring and winter, at elevations of 1,300-3,000 m (Gavashelishvili and Javakhishvili 2010). Meadows used for hay production are important for breeding birds (Klaus et al. 2003). Lek sites are found above the timber line not far from winter food resources such as birch Betula litwinowii, oak Quercus macranthera, beech Fagus orientalis, juniper Juniperus and rose Rosa spp (Klaus and Vitovich 2006).


Threats
Ongoing road building for the construction of holiday homes in the mountains is currently the major threat and is likely to significantly increase the rate of decline by fragmenting habitat, causing disturbance and allowing increased access for hunters and herdsmen (G. Welch in litt. 2005; Isfendiyaroglu et al. 2007; BaÞkaya 2003; Ýsfendiyaroðlu et al. 2007). Construction of summer homes and wood-cutting for fuel reduces the availability of winter foraging habitat. Habitat loss and deterioration are also likely to be major threats with 40% of subalpine meadows within its range suffering from intensive grazing (WWF/IUCN 1994). The density of birds in grazed areas is low. Grazing livestock disturb and trample nests and birds are killed by herders' dogs (S. Klaus in litt. 2007). Illegal hunting is an increasing threat, particularly in the Lesser Caucasus and in Turkey, both by local residents and occasionally by tourists (E. Ménoni in litt. 2007). Dam building and subsequent re-settlement of displaced people is likely to cause significant declines in Turkey (BaÞkaya 2003).

Conservation Actions Underway
Large scale research and conservation projects are underway in Georgia and Turkey to improve understanding of the species' biology, develop monitoring and management activities and promote public awareness, and a project to survey the species in Azerbaijan has been carried out (IUCN/SSC/BirdLife/WPA Grouse Specialist Group 2002; R. Gokhelashvili in litt. 2005; E. Sultanov in litt. 2005; Azniashvili 2004; Sultanov 2006). Future work to develop a conservation strategy and create a potential distribution map for all range countries is planned. A captive breeding program is being developed in Armenia. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue research into its population status, ecological requirements and interactions with different farming and forestry methods. Encourage the development and implementation of national species action plans. Develop a framework for grouse-friendly farming practice, including control of dogs and regulation of hunting. Develop public awareness campaigns. Prevent road construction and inappropriate development in key areas for the species. Review the adequacy of the existing protected area network. Monitor populations at a number of sites throughout its range, especially close to sites which are being developed.

References
Azniashvili, L. 2004. Caucasian black grouse. Caucasus Environment: 33-37.

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Gavashelishvili, A.; Javakhishvili, Z. 2010. Combining radio-telemetry and random observations to model the habitat of Near Threatened Caucasian Grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi. Oryx 44(4): 491-500.

Gokhelashvili, R.; Reese, K. P.; Gavashelishvili, L. 2003. How much do we know about the Caucasian Black Grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi? Sandgrouse 25: 33-40.

Gottschalk, T. K.; Ekschmitt, K.; Isfendiyaroglu, S.; Gem, E.; Wolters, V. 2007. Assessing the potential distribution of the Caucasian Black Grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Turkey through spatial modelling. Journal of Ornithology 148(4): 427-434.

Isfendiyaroglu, S., Welch, G., Ataol, M. 2007. The Caucasian black grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Turkey: recent survey results and conservation recommendations. Wildlife Biology 13(1): 13-20.

Isfendiyaroglu, S.; Welch, G.; Ataol, M. 2007. The Caucasian black grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Turkey: recent survey results and conservation recommendations. Wildlife Biology 13: 13-20.

IUCN; SSC; BirdLife; WPA Grouse Specialist Group. 2002. Clarifying the status of the Caucasian Black Grouse.

Klaus, S.; Bergmann, H. H.; Wiesner, J.; Vitovich, O. A.; Etzold, J.; Sultanov, E. 2003. Verhalten und Ökologie des Kaukasusbirkhuhns Tetrao mlokosiewiczi - stumme Balz am steilen Hang. Limicola 17(5): 225-268.

Klaus, S.; Vitovich, A. V. 2006. Clarifying the status of the Caucasian Black Grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi - methodical approach. Grouse News: 11-15.

Manvelyan, K. 2004. Captive management of the Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewicsi) in the Armenian centre for biodiversity conservation. Grouse News 27: 6-9.

Storch, I. in press. Grouse: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and the World Pheasant Association, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

Sultanov, E. 2006. Surveys in Caucasian Black Grouse habitats in Azerbaijan. Grouse News: 25-28.

WWF/IUCN. 1994. Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation. World Wide Fund for Nature and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Doga Dernegi Project

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Jiang, Y., Maunder, M. & Butterworth, C.

Contributors
Kyriacou, T., Delipetrou, P., Barker, G., Souty-Grosset, C., Congiu, L., Fourqurean, J.W., Turonova, D. & Zhang, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author Taczanowski, 1875
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 87,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species