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Allen's Gallinule Porphyrio alleni

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Synonym(s)
Porphyrula alleni Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Porphyrula alleni Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and modification (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Ecology
Behaviour This species is an intra-African migrant (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). At the onset of the rains populations in the northern tropics move north and populations in the southern tropics move south (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), although some may remain sedentary all year round in permanent wetlands (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The timing of the breeding season varies geographically (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in relation to seasonal rainfall (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), the species breeding in territorial solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with nests well spaced even when many pairs share the same area (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). In favourable conditions the species may occur at high densities and in very large numbers (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), although it is more commonly found alone, in pairs, or in family groups (Langrand 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species undergoes a flightless moulting period shortly after breeding (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), and is mainly diurnal (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), being most active in the early-morning and late-afternoon (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat The species shows a preference for wetlands with water-lilies and other floating vegetation (Urban et al. 1986) (such as Nymphaea, Nymphoides and Ottelia) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and frequently occupies and breeds in seasonal or temporary habitats (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Suitable habitats include freshwater marshes, inundated grasslands, flood-plains (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and river deltas (e.g. Okavango Delta) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) with grasses and sedges (e.g. Oryza longistaminata and Cyperus fastigiatus), reedbeds, papyrus swamps, rice-fields, and thick vegetation (sedges, grasses and reeds) beside lakes, rivers, ponds and temporary pools (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet The species is omnivorous, its diet consisting of the flowers and seeds of reeds and sedges, the seeds, stems and leaves of grasses and other marsh plants, unripe seedheads of water-lilies, and fruits of thorn bush Drepanocarpus lunatus, as well as earthworms, molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic and terrestrial insects, spiders, fish eggs and small fish (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005). Breeding site The nest is a loose structure of reeds, sedges and other vegetation typically positioned in reeds, grasses or tangled vegetation at the waters edge (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005), and also in open marshes and rice-fields (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is threatened throughout its range by the destruction and modification of wetlands (especially the loss of seasonally flooded habitats) through drainage, damming and grazing (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Utilisation The species is hunted for local consumption and trade at Lake Chilwa, Malawi (Bhima 2006).

References
Bhima, R. 2006. Subsistence use of waterbirds at Lake Chilwa, Malawi. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 255-256. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Langrand, O. 1990. Guide to the birds of Madagascar. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taylor, B. 1998. Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Porphyrio alleni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)
Species name author Thomson, 1842
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change