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Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,900,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.2,500,000-3,200,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.7,500,000-9,600,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.15,000,000-40,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. In addition, national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population has suffered major declines and range contractions over much of its range owing to afforestation of heathland, increased cultivation, and planting of coniferous monocultures. The species also suffers locally from over-hunting (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Canada Introduced Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extinct Yes      
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extinct Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant       Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant       Yes
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Liechtenstein Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Possibly Extinct Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant       Yes
Serbia Native Possibly Extinct Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extinct Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Introduced Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park site factsheet
Austria Karwendel site factsheet
Austria Niedere Tauern site factsheet
Belarus Balota Jel'nia site factsheet
Belarus Balota Maročna site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Kaz'jany site factsheet
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode site factsheet
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel site factsheet
Belgium Malchamps site factsheet
Czech Republic Eastern Krušné hory mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Jizerské hory mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) site factsheet
Czech Republic Novodomske raseliniste peatbog - Kovarska site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Kõrvemaa site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island site factsheet
Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo site factsheet
Finland Elimyssalo site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
Finland Litokaira site factsheet
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat site factsheet
Finland Nuuksio site factsheet
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi site factsheet
Finland Riisitunturi site factsheet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira site factsheet
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi site factsheet
France Bois des Ayes site factsheet
France Bois du Chapitre site factsheet
France Haut Giffre site factsheet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes site factsheet
France Les Bauges site factsheet
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières site factsheet
France Parc National de la Vanoise site factsheet
France Parc National des Ecrins site factsheet
France Parc National du Mercantour site factsheet
France Plateau Ardennais site factsheet
France Vallée du Haut-Guil site factsheet
Italy Adamello-Brenta site factsheet
Italy Belluno Dolomites site factsheet
Italy Carniche Alps site factsheet
Italy Dolomites site factsheet
Italy Gran Paradiso site factsheet
Italy Ligurian Alps site factsheet
Italy Maritime Alps site factsheet
Italy Mount Grappa site factsheet
Italy Stelvio National Park site factsheet
Latvia Adazi site factsheet
Latvia Kuja site factsheet
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni site factsheet
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs site factsheet
Latvia Ziemelu bogs site factsheet
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Dzukija National Park site factsheet
Lithuania Kamanos Strict NR site factsheet
Lithuania Pravirsulio Tyrelis State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Netherlands Loonse and Drunense Duinen site factsheet
Netherlands Oirschotse Heide site factsheet
Netherlands Regte Heide site factsheet
Netherlands Sallandse Heuvelrug site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Czarna River Valley site factsheet
Poland Izerskie Mountains site factsheet
Poland Karkonosze Mountains site factsheet
Poland Knyszyn Forest site factsheet
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest site factsheet
Poland Orawa and Nowy Targ Bogs site factsheet
Poland Orzysz Military Area site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Poland Tatra mountains site factsheet
Poland Upper Narew River Valley site factsheet
Romania Rodnei Mountains site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya) site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kargopol' area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya site factsheet
Slovakia Horna Orava site factsheet
Slovakia Malá Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Nízke Tatry site factsheet
Slovakia Tatry site factsheet
Slovakia Velká Fatra site factsheet
Slovenia Breginjski Stol site factsheet
Slovenia Grintovci site factsheet
Slovenia Julijci site factsheet
Slovenia Karavanke site factsheet
Slovenia Pohorje site factsheet
Sweden Florarna site factsheet
Sweden Hanveden-Hemfosa site factsheet
Sweden Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien site factsheet
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys site factsheet
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park site factsheet
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel site factsheet
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut site factsheet
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz site factsheet
Switzerland Simplon region site factsheet
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis site factsheet
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt site factsheet
Ukraine Ratnivs'ke Game Reserve site factsheet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie site factsheet
United Kingdom Galloway Forest Park site factsheet
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Marginal resident
Forest Boreal Suitable resident
Forest Temperate Suitable resident
Grassland Temperate Suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate Suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands Suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Lyrurus tetrix. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 13,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment