This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Porphyrio porphyrio (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split into P. porphyrio, P. indicus, P. madagascariensis, P. melanotus, P. poliocephalus and P. pulverulentus by Sangster et al. (1998), but this treatment is not adopted by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. This is because although there is fair degree of variation between the continental forms of porphyrio (with the race pulverulentus the most distinct), a detailed analysis of character differences is required to determine levels of distinctiveness and variation. Pending such studies, porphyrio is retained as a single polytypic species.
Alonso-Andicoberry, C.; García-Villada, L.; Lopez-Rodas, V.; Costas, E. 2002. Catastrophic mortality of flamingos in a Spanish national park caused by cyanobacteria. Veterinary Record 151: 706-707.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C.; Veitch, C. R. 1999. Brodifacuom residues in target and non-target species following an aerial poisoning operation on Motuihe Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(2): 207-214.
Gaidet, N., Dodman, T., Caron, A., Balanca, G., Desvaux, S., Goutard, F., Cattoli, G., Lamarque, F., Hagemeijer, W. and Monicat, F. 2007. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(4): 626-629.
Galvin, J. W.; Hollier, T. J.; Bodinnar, K. D.; Bunn, C. M. 1985. An outbreak of botulism in wild waterbirds in Southern Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 21(4): 347-350.
Haselmayer, J., Jamieson, I. G. 2001. Increased predation on pukeko eggs after the application of rabbit control measures. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 25(1): 89-93.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Taylor, B. 1998. Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
Further web sources of information
Detailed regional assessment and species account from the European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International, 2015)
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L. & Ashpole, J
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Porphyrio porphyrio. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/02/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/02/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||18,400,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment