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LC
Striped Crake Amaurornis marginalis

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be small, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Amaurornis marginalis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aenigmatolimnas.

Synonym(s)
Aenigmatolimnas marginalis (Hartlaub, 1857), Porzana marginalis Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Porzana marginalis AERC TAC (2003)

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-25,000 individuals, roughly equating to 670-17,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is thought to be in decline (Wetlands International 2006) owing to continued habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
Behaviour This species is a wet-season migrant, moving between ephemeral habitats in response to seasonal rainfall and drought (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds during the rains (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in polyandrous groups (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), with territorial males nesting solitarily (Urban et al. 1986). The species forages diurnally (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) with most activity occurring in the late afternoon and evening (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), roosting at night in grass clumps or on roosting platforms in vegetation (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Habitat Breeding This species shows a preference for areas on higher ground (Urban et al. 1986) with shallow pools, muddy patches and grasses up to 1 m tall (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), generally avoiding tall, dense vegetation in permanent marshes (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), areas with water more than 20-30 cm deep (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and streams liable to heavy flooding (Urban et al. 1986). It typically inhabits seasonally inundated tussocky grasslands which dry out and burn in the dry season (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), as well as river flood-plains (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), temporary pans, short-grass dambos, old rice-fields, and the edges of marshes, ponds and ditches (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Non-breeding The species's habitat requirements on migration and during the non-breeding season are less well known (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), although they appear to be similar to breeding season requirements (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitats frequented during this season include inundated grassland and pool edges, beds of fine reeds near streams, short sedge and grass clumps fringing shallow water (Urban et al. 1986, Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and marshy savanna with small scattered thickets (Ghana) (Urban et al. 1986). Diet Its diet consists of earthworms, small snails, spiders, beetles, grasshoppers, flies, moths, insect larvae, small fish and tadpoles (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Breeding site The nest is a shallow bowl or platform of vegetation, typically constructed 10-25 cm above the water in a tuft of grass, or occasionally floating or positioned above damp ground (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species sometimes builds false nests which it abandons before completion (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is threatened by habitat loss as a result of overgrazing (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and the damming, draining (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and cultivation of seasonal and ephemeral wetlands (Taylor and van Perlo 1998).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Taylor, B. 1998. Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amaurornis marginalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)
Species name author (Hartlaub, 1857)
Population size 670-17000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,360,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change