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VU
Choco Tinamou Crypturellus kerriae

Justification
This species is Vulnerable because it is known from only a few locations within its small range where habitat is gradually disappearing. Its range and possibly small population are suspected to be declining, with none of the widely scattered subpopulations thought to exceed 1,000 mature individuals.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
25-26.5 cm. Smallish, plain, dark tinamou. Dark brown, with blackish crown, slate-grey sides of neck, whitish throat and inconspicuous fine barring on the upperparts. Female darker with coarser barring on wing-coverts and breast, and grey flanks. Red legs. Similar spp. Little Tinamou C. soui is smaller with greyish legs. Berlepsch's Tinamou C. berlepschi is larger and blackish. Voice Low, faint, mournful, three-note whistle.

Distribution and population
Crypturellus kerriae is a poorly-known species occurring in the southern part of Darién province, Panama, and Chocó department, Colombia. It has rarely been recorded, and only a small number of sites are known. The population size is unknown, but it is heard regularly near Cana, Serranía de Pirre, Panama (G. R. Angehr in litt. 1998, B. Porteous in litt. 1999, C.J. Sharpe, pers comm. 2011) and Ensenada de Utría National Park, Colombia, with 10-15 birds heard from 3 km of trails in the latter (Porteous and Acevedo 1996). There were single records of individuals in the Serranía de Jungurundó, Panama in 1995 and 1997 (Angehr et al. 2004).


Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
It occurs in humid primary forest. The known sites include steep coastal forest in west Colombia (Porteous and Acevedo 1996), and from humid premontane forest at 500m at Cana, Darién (C.J. Sharpe, pers comm. 2011), up to ridge-top forest at 1,400-1,500 m in Panama (Robbins et al. 1985), with other records at intermediate altitudes.

Threats
Vast areas of seemingly suitable habitat remain, but road construction, human settlement, timber extraction and mining are causing gradual reductions. The recent completion of a new road-bridge has made unprotected areas of coastal plain forest adjacent to Ensenada de Utría National Park accessible to settlement and associated threats (Strewe 1999). The Atrato valley, Colombia, is relatively accessible and, if the species occurs there, that population would probably be the most threatened owing to human settlement, and conversion to farmland and banana plantations (P. Salaman in litt. 1999). It is presumably hunted wherever humans are present. The completion of the Pan-American highway through Darién and the canalisation of the Truandó and lower Atrato rivers, to make an inter-oceanic fairway, are currently on hold, but could have serious effects on the species (Alvarez-Cordero et al. 1994, WWF and IUCN 1997, B. Porteous in litt. 1999).


Conservation Actions Underway
Darién National Park, Panama, and Ensenada de Utría National Park, Colombia, are important areas (Porteous and Acevedo 1996). Los Katíos National Park, Colombia, protects c.720 km2 of apparently suitable habitat in the Chocó region, but the species has yet to be recorded in the reserve. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas between known localities where feasible (P. Salaman in litt. 1999). Study the ecology to provide an improved understanding of its status and distribution. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status. Raise awareness of the species and its status in an effort to reduce hunting pressure. Grant the species legal protection in Colombia and Panama.

References
Alvarez-Cordero, E.; de Samudio, J.; Marquez Reyes, C.; Ellis, S. 1994. Conservation assessment and management plan workshop for bird and mammal species endemic to Panama. International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources, Apple Valley, MN.

Angehr, G. R.; Christian, D. G.; Aparicio, K.M. 2004. A survey of the Serranía de jungurudó, an isolated mountain range in eastern Panama. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 51-62.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Porteous, B.; Acevedo, C. 1996. Potentially important populations of Chocó Tinamou Crypturellus kerriae and Brown Wood-rail Aramides wolfi in Colombia. Cotinga: 31-32.

Robbins, M. B.; Parker, T. A.; Allen, S. E. 1985. The avifauna of Cerro Pirre, Darién, eastern Panama. In: Buckley, P.A. (ed.), Neotropical Ornothology, pp. 198-232. American Ornithologist's Union, Washington D.C.

Strewe, R. 1999. Notes on the rediscovery of the Baudó Oropendula Psaracolius cassini in Chocó, Colombia. Cotinga 12: 40-46.

WWF/IUCN. 1997. Centres of plant diversity: the Americas. IUCN, Cambridge, UK.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Symes, A., Benstead, P., Clay, R., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Sharpe, C J, Angehr, G., Salaman, P., Porteous, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Crypturellus kerriae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tinamidae (Tinamous)
Species name author (Chapman, 1915)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,200 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species