This rail qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population, which is likely to be undergoing a continuing decline and severe fragmentation owing primarily to habitat loss. However, the few confirmed recent records may in part reflect its reclusive nature and further surveys are needed to clarify its status.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Distribution and populationGymnocrex rosenbergii
30 cm. Medium-sized, secretive, forest rail. Conspicuous patch of bare cobalt-blue skin around eye. Black crown, underparts and tail, rufous upperparts and wings. Similar spp. Only other forest rail in range is Snoring Rail Aramidopsis plateni which is grey on mantle, face and breast, barred on flanks and lacks bare blue patch around eye. Hints Pursue or play-back any low resonant calls heard in forest undergrowth. Voice Snoring sound apparently similar to A. plateni. Also quiet clucking sound in alarm.
is known from Sulawesi and the nearby island of Peleng, Indonesia
(BirdLife International 2001). Specimen records and sightings suggest that it is relatively widely distributed and locally fairly common. However, it appears to have declined, and has probably disappeared from much of the Minahasa peninsula, and indeed lowland Sulawesi. Recent records derive from few localities, suggesting that it is now rare and local, although its retiring habits undoubtedly result in it being under-recorded. Its current status on Peleng (where it is known from just three specimens) is unknown. Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.Trend justification
This species is suspected to be in decline owing to forest loss, even within protected areas, as well as hunting pressure and predation by introduced species. However, a lack of robust survey data prevents an accurate estimation of its population trend.Ecology
It inhabits dense primary and old secondary tropical evergreen (sometimes relatively dry) forest, usually between 150 and 900 m. However, recent records from c.1,700 m suggest that its altitudinal range is broad. Records indicate a preference for thick understorey (comprising small saplings, palms, rattans and bamboos), forest streams and pools. It has also been encountered in dense, low forest/shrub regrowth on recently abandoned rice-fields. It is a very poor flier, and is therefore presumably largely sedentary. Its call is potentially a significant aid to detection. Threats
The impact of extensive lowland deforestation on Sulawesi, as a result of land clearance for transmigration settlements, agricultural and infrastructure development and large-scale logging, is unclear. However, habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation certainly pose the main threats to the species. In Indonesia new regional autonomy laws were passed in 1999 (and enacted in early 2000), which empower regional governments to determine the licensing of forest concessions and exploitation of natural resources. Unfortunately there has also been a significant increase in the amount of logging taking place in protected areas since decentralisation, especially in Sulawesi. The harvesting of rattan in the lower elevations of Lore Lindu National Park may be impacting the species (K. D. Bishop in litt
. 2012). Its near flightlessness renders it vulnerable to predation, particularly by introduced predators (e.g. dogs), and hunting (using snares) may pose a local threat. Conservation Actions Underway
It is known to occur in five protected areas, Bogani Nani Wartabone, Lore Lindu and Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Parks, Gunung Klabat, Pengunungan Palu and Tangkoko DuaSudara and Gunung Ambang Nature Reserves (BirdLife International 2001, N. Brickle per
T. O'Brien in litt
. 2007); however, in recent years deforestation has continued both within and adjacent to protected areas in northern Sulawesi (T. O'Brien in litt
. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for this species (using tape playback of its vocalisations to aid detection), on both Sulawesi and Peleng, to establish its current distribution and status, assess its ecological requirements and identify local threats. Propose further key sites for establishment as strict protected areas.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
Bishop, K., O'Brien, T.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gymnocrex rosenbergii. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species