email a friend
printable version
LC
Water Rail Rallus aquaticus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,980,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,980,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Brunei Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes  
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant      
Iceland Native Extant   Yes  
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant      
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Madagascar Native Extant Yes    
Malaysia Vagrant Extant      
Malta Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes
Poland Native Extant      
Portugal Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes    
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Thailand Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Vietnam Vagrant Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Rallus aquaticus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Rallidae (Rails, crakes and allies)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,980,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species