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Junin Rail Laterallus tuerosi
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Justification
This species is known from a very small area of marshland around a single Andean lake, where habitat quality is declining. The population may well be very small and is presumably declining. The species consequently qualifies as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
Fjelds

Taxonomic note
Laterallus jamaicensis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into L. jamaicensis and L. tuerosi following Fjeldså (1983), contra SACC (2005), pending the outcome of investigation into the taxonomy of this group by SACC.

Identification
12-13 cm. Tiny, strikingly patterned rail. Dark slaty head, throat and underparts with black belly and vent, heavily barred white. Buff undertail-coverts. Dull rufous-brown back. Rest of upperparts dark brown, boldly barred white. Greenish-yellow legs. Voice Single chirrr notes. Males deliver a succession of chic notes ending by falling slurr. Females a low croo-croo-o.

Distribution and population
Laterallus tuerosi is endemic to the shores of Lago de Junín, Junín, in the Andean highlands of central Peru. It is known at two sites (near Ondores and Pari) on the south-west shore, but is likely to occur in other portions of the c.150 km2 of marshland surrounding the lake, and may be fairly common.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals, equating to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals. This estimate was derived by BirdLife International (2000) from the observation that the species may be fairly common in the c.150 km2 of available marshland habitat.

Trend justification
A moderate and ongoing population decline is suspected to be occurring on the basis of the declining quality of habitat within small total range.

Ecology
This secretive waterbird inhabits the rushy marsh vegetation fringing Lago de Junín, at 4,080 m in the Andean highlands. Its habitat preferences are not fully known, but it has been observed in mosaics of Juncus and open marsh with mosses and low herbs (Fjeldså 1983). Breeding is reported to occur at the end of the dry season, in September-October, and two eggs are laid.

Threats
Since at least 1955 the lake has been affected by pollution and human-induced water-level changes, which may adversely affect the fringing vegetation. There has been strong desiccation of reed marshes, caused by drought and unsustainable water management by Electro Peru, and occasional flooding with highly acidic water from the Cerro de Pasco mines (J. Fjeldså in litt. to Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Predation by pampas cats Oncifelis colocolo pajeros may be a significant problem which is exacerbated by periods of drought when more of the marsh becomes accessible to the cats (J. Fjeldså in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
The lake is a national reserve, but this has not influenced mining and dam-building activities (O'Donnell and Fjeldså undated). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size and range. Reduce pollution and regulate water-levels for the benefit of local people and wildlife (O'Donnell and Fjeldså 1997). Assess the feasibility of a sustainable habitat management programme (O'Donnell and Fjeldså 1997). Investigate the species's taxonomic relationship with L. jamaicensis.

References
BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened birds of the world. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fjeldså, J. 1983. A Black Rail from Junín, central Peru: Laterallus jamaicensis tuerosi ssp. n. (Aves: Rallidae). Steenstrupia: 277-282.

O'Donnel, C. and Fjeldså, J. 1997. Grebes - status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Grebe Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

O'Donnell, C.; Fjeldsa, J. 1997. Grebes: a global action plan for their conservation.

Taylor, B. 1998. Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Fjeldså, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Laterallus tuerosi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Rallidae (Rails, crakes and allies)
Species name author Fjelds
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 160 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species