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Andaman Crake Rallina canningi

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it has a very small range, in which its habitat is declining but is not severely fragmented, and a moderately small population which is thought to be declining owing to heavy trapping pressure and habitat loss and degradation.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
34 cm. Large, chestnut crake with indistinct dense black-and-white belly-barring. Green bill and legs. Juveniles duller and less prominently barred below. Similar spp. Similar Rallina crakes and Ruddy-breasted Crake Porzana fusca are smaller and do not have green bill and legs. Voice Throaty croaking kroop kroop and sharp chik notes when alarmed.

Distribution and population
Rallina canningi is endemic to the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, India, where it is known from North, Middle and South Andaman and may occur on other islands. Formerly considered very common based on high trapping rates, there were very few recent records until survey work in 2004 found it to be fairly common in suitable habitat (Ezhilarasi and Vijayan 2008).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 10,000-25,000 individuals in total, roughly equivalent to 6,700-17,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is estimated to be declining at a slow to moderate rate, owing primarily to heavy trapping pressure.

Ecology
It is resident in marshes and along streams within or at the edge of forest, and occasionally mangroves, favouring dense vegetation including tangled thickets of rattan and pandanus.

Threats
It is known to be under heavy trapping pressure, and may also be declining as a result of increasing habitat destruction and degradation through forest clearance for settlements, cultivation, road construction, and other infrastructural projects. Introduced predators are another potential threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is known from Chidiyatapu Biological Park. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys throughout its range to determine its current population size. Asses the extent and impact of habitat loss on populations. Quantify the impact of trapping on populations. Regulate trapping if appropriate. Protect large areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Ezhilarasi, N.; Vijayan, J. 2008. Status and ecology of Andaman Crake. Submitted to Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Davidson, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Peet, N., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Hornbuckle, J., Li, Z.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Rallina canningi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)
Species name author (Blyth, 1863)
Population size 6700-17000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species