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White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered C2a(i) 
Endangered A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1+2 
Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,600 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 484,000 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 good Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1-49 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -
Population justification: The population in South Africa was previously estimated to be 235 birds, with at least a further 210-215 pairs in Ethiopia (A. Shimelis in litt. 1998), i.e. probably 700 mature individuals in total. The species can only be reliably surveyed in the breeding season, but surveys risk disturbing nesting and thus have been avoided in the past (Y. D. Adebe in litt. 2013). Nevertheless, the lack of recent records and tiny area of remaining habitat suggest that the total population is now almost certainly fewer than 250 mature individuals, with both the Ethiopian and South African populations numbering fewer than 50 mature individuals each (Y. Adebe, M. Ewnetu, G. Gebreselassie and H. Smit-Robinson in litt. 2013).
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing very rapidly in line with levels of disturbance, habitat loss and degradation in Ethiopia and South Africa (Atkinson et al. 1996a, Taylor and van Perlo 1998, P.B. Taylor in litt. 1999, De Smidt and Evans 2003, Taylor and Grundling 2003, M. Drummond in litt. 2005, Y. Adebe, M. Ewnetu, G. Gebreselassie and H. Smit-Robinson in litt. 2013).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Ethiopia Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant   Yes    
Zambia Vagrant Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Ethiopia Berga floodplain site factsheet
Ethiopia Sululta plain site factsheet
South Africa Bedford-Chatsworth site factsheet
South Africa Franklin Vlei site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Greater Ingwangwana River site factsheet
South Africa Murphy's Rust site factsheet
South Africa Penny Park site factsheet
South Africa Steenkampsberg site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Altitude 2200 - 2600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 1100 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sarothrura ayresi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, Coots)
Species name author (Gurney, 1877)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,600 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change