email a friend
printable version
EN
Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2ac+3c+4ac; C1+2a(i) 
Vulnerable C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2009 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 551,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 458,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1650 medium Estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 950-1000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,750 individuals, which roughly equates to 1,650 mature individuals (J. Harris in litt. 2007, in litt. 2009).
Trend justification: The population in Japan is stable but that on the continent is declining due to a number of factors, most importantly the degradation of breeding and wintering sites. Apparent recent increases are likely to reflect increased concentrations at fewer sites, and the global population is thought to have declined by at least 20% over the past 37 years or three generations (J. Harris in litt. 2009).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
North Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
South Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi site factsheet
China (mainland) Dazhanhe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Genhe site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Hanma Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huanzidong site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mangui site factsheet
China (mainland) Maoshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Niuxintaobao site factsheet
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu site factsheet
China (mainland) Qidong Northern Yangtze Estuary Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qilihai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qingdao-Rizhao coastal wetland and islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong site factsheet
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Weinan Sanhe wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yaojingzi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay site factsheet
Japan Kushiro marsh site factsheet
Japan Lake Akkeshiko, Bekanbeushi marsh site factsheet
Japan Lake Furenko and nearby wetlands site factsheet
Japan Lake Notoroko and Lake Abashiriko site factsheet
Japan Lake Tofutsuko site factsheet
Japan Lower Tokachigawa river site factsheet
Japan Notsuke bay, Odaito site factsheet
Japan Tokachi coastal lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
North Korea Amrok River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Anbyon field site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Chongdan field site factsheet
North Korea Daedong Bay site factsheet
North Korea Kangryong field site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Kwangpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Samilpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Tungjong and Lake Chonapo site factsheet
North Korea Mount Kumgang site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Ongjin Bay site factsheet
North Korea Orangchon River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Panmun field site factsheet
North Korea Ryonghung Gang estuary site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Unryul Kumsanpo site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Muraviovskiy Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
South Korea Cheolwon basin site factsheet
South Korea Daeseongdong and Panmunjeom marshes site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Yeonchon site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grus japonensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (M?ller, 1776)
Population size 1650 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 551,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species