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VU
Hooded Crane Grus monacha

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C1+2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 119,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 119,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1,410 good
Area of Occupancy non-breeding (km2) 1,410 good
Number of locations 10 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 good Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 2500-9999 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12 - - -
Population justification: The global population was estimated at c.6,900 mature individuals (J. Harris in litt. 2006), but is now estimated to be c.11,600 individuals based on winter estimates of 1,050-1,150 individuals in China (J. Harris in litt. 2012); c.10,500 individuals in Japan (S. Chan in litt. 2012) and c.114 individuals in Korea (Li and Mundkur 2004). The population is thus best placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing at a moderate rate, in line with levels of wetland loss and degradation in its wintering grounds, primarily as a result of reclamation for development and dam building. Based upon winter counts, it is increasing at Izumi in Japan and Suncheon Bay in South Korea but the species is declining at all seven of its other known wintering sites (S. Chan in litt. 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant     Yes Yes
India Vagrant Extinct   Yes    
Japan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
North Korea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Unknown Extant        
South Korea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes) site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dazhanhe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huanzidong site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huret site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lindian County Xinxing Horse Ranch and Julang Pasture site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qidong Northern Yangtze Estuary Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang site factsheet
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xinqing Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Japan Izumi, Takaono site factsheet
Japan Kumage-Yatsushiro site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Daedong Bay site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Panmun field site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiy lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiy lakes system site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Bikin river (Kenihezskaya mire) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Bikin river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Iman river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Muraviovskiy Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Zevskoye plateau site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grus monacha. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author Temminck, 1835
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 119,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species