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VU
Wattled Crane Bugeranus carunculatus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2acde+3cde+4acde;C1+2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass 8159 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,380,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000-5300 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulation 6000-8000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: Its present world population has been variously estimated at 7,700 individuals (Pittman 2007) or fewer (Morrison and van der Spuy 2006; Motsumi et al. 2007), fewer than 8,000 individuals (Beilfuss et al. 2007) and 6,000-8,000 individuals (Beilfuss et al. 2003), which is the estimate used here. This roughly equates to 4,000-5,300 mature individuals.
Trend justification: When estimates from the 1980s are compared with those from 2006, the species is judged to have declined significantly (Morrison and van der Spuy 2006), indicating declines in the last three generations. The comparison of 2002 estimates with those from 1993 suggests marked declines in Mozambique, Zambia and possibly Botswana (Hancock et al. 2003). The total population was recently stated to be in decline in nine range states (Beilfuss et al. 2007). The overall rate of decline is estimated to be rapid.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Malawi Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extinct Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Angola Cuelei site factsheet
Angola Luando Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Angola Mombolo (Missão da Namba) site factsheet
Angola Mupa National Park site factsheet
Botswana Linyanti swamp/Chobe river site factsheet
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans site factsheet
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Kundelungu National Park site factsheet
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Lufira valley site factsheet
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Upemba National Park site factsheet
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park site factsheet
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands site factsheet
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana site factsheet
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park site factsheet
Ethiopia Berga floodplain site factsheet
Ethiopia Boyo wetland site factsheet
Ethiopia Dilu Meda (Tefki) site factsheet
Ethiopia Finchaa and Chomen swamps site factsheet
Ethiopia Fogera plains site factsheet
Ethiopia Koffe swamp site factsheet
Malawi Kasungu National Park site factsheet
Mozambique Zambezi River Delta site factsheet
Namibia Eastern Caprivi wetlands site factsheet
Namibia Mahango Game Reserve and Kavango river site factsheet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system site factsheet
South Africa Chrissie Pans site factsheet
South Africa Franklin Vlei site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Hlatikulu Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Karkloof Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Steenkampsberg site factsheet
South Africa UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park site factsheet
South Africa Umgeni Vlei Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umvoti Vlei site factsheet
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves site factsheet
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve site factsheet
Tanzania Usangu flats site factsheet
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Kafue National Park site factsheet
Zambia Kalungwishi site factsheet
Zambia Kasanka National Park site factsheet
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park site factsheet
Zambia Lukanga Swamp site factsheet
Zambia Lusenga Plain National Park site factsheet
Zambia Machile site factsheet
Zambia Minyanya Plain site factsheet
Zambia Nyika National Park (Zambia) site factsheet
Zambia Simungoma site factsheet
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area site factsheet
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area site factsheet
Zimbabwe Driefontein grasslands site factsheet
Zimbabwe Nyanga mountains site factsheet
Zimbabwe Stapleford Forest site factsheet
Zimbabwe Wabai Hill (Debshan Ranch) site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 2000 - 4140 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bugeranus carunculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size 4000-5300 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,300,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions