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Blue Crane Anthropoides paradiseus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2acde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 887,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Stable medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 12000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: The population has been estimated at over 25,580 individuals, with a minimum of 25,520 in South Africa.
Trend justification: In South Africa, numbers in the south and south-western Western Cape have increased as the species has expanded into agricultural areas, although the national population has fallen by half since the 1970s (Archibald and Meine 1996, Barnes 2000). Evidence suggests that populations in Namibia (R. Simmons in litt. 2007) and the central Karoo region of South Africa (McCann et al. 2007) are stable. The overall population is presumed to have declined by 30-49% over the last 39 years (three generations) until further evidence to support on-going stability and increases in local populations is obtained.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Botswana Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Lesotho Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
Swaziland Vagrant Extant        
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Namibia Etosha National Park site factsheet
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District site factsheet
South Africa Blyde River Canyon site factsheet
South Africa Camdeboo National Park site factsheet
South Africa Chelmsford Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Chrissie Pans site factsheet
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Eastern False Bay mountains site factsheet
South Africa Fouriesburg - Bethlehem - Clarens site factsheet
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Hlatikulu Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Impendle Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Ithala Game Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Karkloof Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Kouga - Baviaanskloof Complex site factsheet
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Magaliesberg site factsheet
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Overberg Wheatbelt site factsheet
South Africa Overstrand site factsheet
South Africa Pilanesberg National Park site factsheet
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy site factsheet
South Africa Southern Langeberg mountains site factsheet
South Africa Steenkampsberg site factsheet
South Africa UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park site factsheet
South Africa Umgeni Vlei Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umvoti Vlei site factsheet
South Africa Waterberg System site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anthropoides paradiseus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Lichtenstein, 1793)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 887,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change