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LC
Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 2417 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,790,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,790,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.230,000-280,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Armenia Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Vagrant Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Vagrant Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Greece Vagrant Extant      
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant     Yes
Italy Vagrant Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Vagrant Extant      
Kuwait Vagrant Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Unknown Possibly Extinct      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Serbia Vagrant Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
South Korea Vagrant Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Syria Vagrant Extant     Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Yemen Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) site factsheet
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau site factsheet
India Jaikwadi Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo) site factsheet
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Jordan Azraq site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sagyz site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Mongolia Baga and Bayan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers site factsheet
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains site factsheet
Mongolia Ganga Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tarialan site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiy lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiy lakes system site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity) site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the rivers Big Karaganka and Syntasty site factsheet
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski site factsheet
Russia (European) Budary lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Cranes area site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Drofinyi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river site factsheet
Russia (European) Manychstroi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village site factsheet
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river site factsheet
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Uttinskaya area site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen site factsheet
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il site factsheet
Sudan Gezira site factsheet
Turkey Ağrı Plain site factsheet
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains site factsheet
Turkey Haçlı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Kulu Lake site factsheet
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills site factsheet
Uzbekistan Talimarzhan Reservoir site factsheet
Yemen Aden site factsheet
Yemen Al-Murah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anthropoides virgo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,790,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species