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Sarus Crane Antigone antigone

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Australia
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,830,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,830,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 13000-15000 good Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -
Population justification: There are thought to be 8,000-10,000 individuals in India, Nepal and Pakistan; 800-1,000 in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, 500-800 in Myanmar (unpublished information supplied by Wetlands International Specialist Groups 2006), and in litt. 2005). The population size thus totals 19,000-21,800 individuals, roughly equivalent to 13,000-15,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to have decreased, owing to the loss and degradation of wetlands, as a result of drainage and conversion to agriculture, ingestion of pesticides, and the hunting of adults and collection of eggs and chicks for trade, food, medicinal purposes and to help limit damage to crops.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Australia Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant        
India Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extinct   Yes    
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extant       Yes
Pakistan Native Extant       Yes
Philippines Native Extinct Yes      
Thailand Native Extinct Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Atherton Tablelands site factsheet
Australia Gulf Plains site factsheet
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv site factsheet
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
Cambodia Kampong Trach site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands site factsheet
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk site factsheet
Cambodia Sre Ambel site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Western Siem Pang site factsheet
India Alniya Dam site factsheet
India Bagdarrah Closed Area site factsheet
India Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bandhavgarh National Park site factsheet
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand site factsheet
India Bardha Dam site factsheet
India Barna Reservoir site factsheet
India Basai wetlands site factsheet
India Bhal area site factsheet
India Bhashkarpara site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhoj wetland site factsheet
India Corbett Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Gawana Arain, Mangaliyawas, Ramsar, Goyal, Ratakot, Badar site factsheet
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Halali Reservoir site factsheet
India Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kanha National Park site factsheet
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage site factsheet
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kudaiyya marshland site factsheet
India Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kurra Jheel site factsheet
India Lagga - Bagga Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mirgund Jheel and Reserve site factsheet
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Narora site factsheet
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE) site factsheet
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE) site factsheet
India Navegaon National Park site factsheet
India Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Parvati Aranga Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pyagpur and Sitadwar Jheel site factsheet
India Rampura Grassland site factsheet
India Ramsagar Lake site factsheet
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary site factsheet
India Saman Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sandi Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sareri Bandh site factsheet
India Sariska Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Sarsai Nawar Lake site factsheet
India Sauj Lake site factsheet
India Sei Dam reservoir and surrounding environs site factsheet
India Sheikha Jheel site factsheet
India Sohagibarwa Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sonkhaliya Closed Area site factsheet
India Sultanpur National Park site factsheet
India Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Surha Tal Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Udaipur Lakes Complex site factsheet
India Valmiki Tiger Reserve and Saraiyaman Lake site factsheet
India Velavadar National Park site factsheet
India Wetlands of Kheda site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Yeshwantsagar Reservoir site factsheet
Laos Xe Kong Plains site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady Delta (including Meinmahla Kyun) site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Myanmar Inle Lake site factsheet
Myanmar Kaladan River site factsheet
Myanmar Moyingyi site factsheet
Myanmar Nadi Kan site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area site factsheet
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Philippines Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Vietnam Kien Luong site factsheet
Vietnam Lang Sen site factsheet
Vietnam Tram Chim site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Antigone antigone. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 13000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,830,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species