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CR
Siberian Crane Leucogeranus leucogeranus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A3bcd+4bcd 
Endangered A3bcd+4bcd 
Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;D2 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 107,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 44,700 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. 2008) and counts of 3,400 at Momoge in May 2011 and at Poyang in early 2012. The western subpopulation numbers four individuals (E. Ilyashenko in litt. 2002).
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to have decreased rapidly over the last three generations, in line with levels of wetland conversion (for development and agriculture), hunting (especially on passage), and disturbance. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the hydrological pattern of the lower Yangtze River, resulting in lower water levels in winter. Poyang Lake thus drains more rapidly into the Yangtze during the low water period. In addition, as of 2001, over 9,600 dams had been constructed on the five rivers feeding into Poyang Lake (more are still being constructed). As a result of water diversions and climate fluctuations, floods and droughts are increasingly frequent at Poyang. In response, it is probable that a dam will be constructed at the outlet to Poyang Lake to stabilize winter water levels. Operation of its sluice gates has not been determined, but early proposals called for significantly increased water levels through the winter season, which would make most or all current foraging areas for the cranes inaccessible, perhaps causing extremely rapid declines in the next three generations.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Possibly Extinct     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) Vagrant Extant      
India Native Possibly Extinct   Yes  
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant     Yes
Mongolia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Possibly Extinct     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Possibly Extinct Yes    
South Korea Vagrant Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Possibly Extinct     Yes
Uzbekistan Native Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada site factsheet
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys site factsheet
Afghanistan Salang Kotal site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Genhe site factsheet
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huanzidong site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mangui site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Wolong Hu (Xi Paozi) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Telmen Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Angara river source site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kava valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes (including Daursky Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Atyazh lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatsky zakaznik site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leucogeranus leucogeranus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Pallas, 1773)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 107,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species