email a friend
printable version
EN
Grey Crowned-crane Balearica regulorum

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2acd+4acd 
Vulnerable A2acd+4acd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2009 Vulnerable
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,570,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.1 - - -
Population justification: Beilfuss et al. (2007) estimated the population to number 50,000-64,000 individuals in 2004. Since the population is declining very rapidly, the current population size is likely to be lower than this and so a new population estimate is needed.
Trend justification: Overall estimates suggest that the species’s global population has declined from over 100,000 individuals in 1985 to 50,000-64,000 individuals in 2004 (Beilfuss et al. 2007). This implies that the species may have declined by over 50% in 19 years, and when these data are extrapolated to a period of 45 years in the past (1967-2012) or past and future (1985-2030), assuming an exponential trend, the calculated rate of decline is c.65-79% (Beilfuss et al. 2007, Morrison et al. 2007, K. Morrison in litt. 2011, National Biodiversity Data Bank in prep.). Declines are attributed primarily to habitat loss and fragmentation and illegal removal of birds and eggs from the wild for food, traditional use, domestication and the international illegal trade market.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Native Extant       Yes
Burundi Native Extant       Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant       Yes
Kenya Native Extant       Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Malawi Native Extant       Yes
Mozambique Native Extant       Yes
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
Rwanda Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
Swaziland Native Extant       Yes
Tanzania Native Extant       Yes
Uganda Native Extant       Yes
Zambia Native Extant       Yes
Zimbabwe Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kenya Kwenia site factsheet
Kenya Lake Ol' Bolossat site factsheet
Uganda Kibimba Rice Scheme site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Small dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Balearica regulorum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Bennett, 1834)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,570,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change