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Black Crowned-crane Balearica pavonina

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,010,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.1 - - -
Population justification: The western sub-population (B. p. pavonina) was estimated to number c.15,000 individuals in 2004, and the eastern sub-population (B. p. ceciliae) is less well-known, though estimated at 28,000-55,000 individuals in the same year.
Trend justification: The western sub-population (B. p. pavonina) is estimated to have declined from 15,000-20,000 individuals in 1985 to 15,000 individuals in 2004 (Beilfuss et al. 2007). Although the eastern sub-population may have undergone a more substantial decline (50,000-70,000 individuals in 1985 to 28,000-55,000 individuals in 2004), the accuracy of initial and current counts are questionable hence a trend based on this data is not advisable (Beilfuss et al. 2007; T. Dodman in litt. 2009). Therefore, based on data from B. p. pavonina populations alone, the species is estimated to have declined between 0-25% from 1985-2004. Given the uncertainty around these estimates, we provisionally estimate a worst-case decline of 30-49% over 45 years (three generations), though the true figure may be higher depending on the status of B. p. ceciliae.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Benin Native Extant       Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant       Yes
Cameroon Native Extant       Yes
Central African Republic Native Extant       Yes
Chad Native Extant       Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant       Yes
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant Yes      
Egypt Vagrant Extant Yes      
Eritrea Native Extant       Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant       Yes
Gambia Native Extant       Yes
Ghana Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant       Yes
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant       Yes
Kenya Native Extant       Yes
Mali Native Extant       Yes
Mauritania Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant       Yes
Nigeria Native Extant       Yes
Senegal Native Extant       Yes
Sierra Leone Vagrant Extant   Yes    
South Sudan Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant Yes Yes    
Togo Native Extant       Yes
Uganda Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cameroon Logone flood-plain site factsheet
Cameroon Waza National Park site factsheet
Chad Lake Fitri site factsheet
Chad Zakouma National Park site factsheet
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé site factsheet
Nigeria Chad Basin National Park: Chingurmi - Duguma Sector site factsheet
South Sudan Lake Abiad (South Sudan) site factsheet
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system) site factsheet
Sudan Lake Abiad (Sudan) site factsheet
Sudan Lake Kundi site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Balearica pavonina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,010,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change