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Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A3bcd+4abcd 
Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd;D1 
Vulnerable A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 87,500 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 107,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -
Population justification: The population in Cambodia was estimated at 294 displaying males or c.600 individuals in 2009 (Gray et al. 2009a), but recently an extensive survey has reported a total of only 432 individuals (95% CI 312-550) (C. Packman in litt. 2013). 75-96 individuals remain in Nepal (Baral et al. 2013). No recent estimates are known from India but the total global population for this species is likely to fall in the range 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.
Trend justification: A very rapid decline in the global population is estimated to have occurred over the last three generations, based on figures from Cambodia. Current and projected rates of decline in the Cambodian population alone equate to a decline in the global population exceeding 80% in three generations (T. Gray in litt. 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bangladesh Native Possibly Extinct        
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extant       Yes
Vietnam Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv site factsheet
Cambodia Northern Santuk site factsheet
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay site factsheet
Cambodia Stung / Prasat Balang site factsheet
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray site factsheet
Cambodia Veal Srongae site factsheet
India Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deobali Jalah, Sialmari, Haibargaon, Khutikatia (Nagaon) site factsheet
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Gorumara National Park site factsheet
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Lagga - Bagga Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Manas National Park site factsheet
India Nameri National Park site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Subansiri site factsheet
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Vietnam Ha Tien site factsheet
Vietnam Tram Chim site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Houbaropsis bengalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Otididae (Bustards)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 87,500 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species