This bustard has a very small, declining population; a trend that has recently become extremely rapid and is predicted to continue in the near future, largely as a result of the widespread and on-going conversion of its grassland habitat for agriculture. It therefore qualifies as Critically Endangered.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Eupodotis bengalensis Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Eupodotis bengalensis bengalensis Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Distribution and populationHoubaropsis bengalensis
66-68 cm. Mostly black bustard with largely white wings. In flight, wings entirely white except for black tips. Female and immature are buff-brown to sandy-rufous, and have buffish-white wing-coverts with fine, dark barring. Similar spp. Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica is smaller and longer-necked. Male has spatulate-tipped head plumes, white collar across upper mantle and white wing-coverts. Female has more prominent pale wing-coverts. Voice Croaks and strange, deep humming during display. Sometimes shrill metallic chik-chik-chik when disturbed. Hints Search grasslands during March-May when displaying males are most conspicuous.
has two disjunct populations, one in the Indian Subcontinent, the other in South-East Asia (BirdLife International 2001). The former occurs from Uttar Pradesh, India
, through the terai of Nepal
, to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India, and historically to Bangladesh. It has declined dramatically and only survives in small, highly fragmented populations. Declines have apparently continued in Nepal, even inside the protected Royal Chitwan National Park (Baral et al
. 2003), but they may have stabilised in India (Rahmani 2001). Surveys and interviews with staff at four protected areas in the North Bank area of Assam suggest that the species has been largely absent from three of them since 2000 (Brahma and Lahkar 2009). An estimate from 2007 put the Nepalese population at just 28-36 mature individuals (restricted to a few widespread sites) (Poudyal 2007), down from 32-60 individuals in 2001 (S. Hogberg in litt
. 2006). Around 12 pairs are estimated to remain in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and the adjoining areas (Baral et al.
2012). The South-East Asian population occurs in Cambodia and may be extant in southern Vietnam. The population in the Tonle Sap region, which supports the vast majority of the population of Cambodia, was estimated at between 666 and 1,004 birds (95% CI range based on surveys in 2006-2007), with perhaps as few as 294 displaying males remaining in 2007 (Gray et al.
2009). More than 50% of this estimated population occurs on seasonally inundated grasslands within Kompong Thom province (Gray et al.
2009). This estimate, based on extent of available habitat in 2005 and known habitat loss between 2005 and 2007, represents a rapid decline owing to habitat loss, from a projected 3,000 individuals in 1997 (T. Gray, T. Evans and Hong Chamnan in litt
. 2006). Given accelerating post-2005 grassland loss of 28% within 10 grassland blocks holding 75% of the estimated population (Gray et al
. 2009), and a further 11% of habitat lost in four protected areas in 2008 (Evans et al
. 2009), projected rates of decline will equate to over 80% during a three generation period (T. Gray, T. Evans and Hong Chamnan in litt
. 2006). A Cambodian range-wide survey is in progress, early indications are that this will validate assumptions that the Bengal Florican population in the Tonle Sap floodplain is continuing to decline as suitable habitat declines in extent and quality (S. Mahood and L. Packman in litt.
2012). Annual monitoring of Bengal Florican populations in Bengal Florican Conservation Areas (BFCAs) and adjacent areas in Cambodia during March-April 2008-11 indicates that whilst populations in some protected areas are stable, in other locations population declines are ongoing.Population justification
The population in Cambodia was estimated at 294 displaying males or c.600 individuals in 2007 (Gray et al
. 2009), with just 32-60 individuals left in Nepal. No recent estimates are known from India but the total global population for this species is likely to fall in the range 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.Trend justification
A very rapid decline in the global population is estimated to have occurred over the last three generations, based on figures from Cambodia. Current and projected rates of decline in the Cambodian population alone equate to a decline in the global population exceeding 80% in three generations (T. Gray in litt
. 2006). Ecology
It inhabits lowland dry, or seasonally inundated, natural and semi-natural grasslands, often interspersed with scattered scrub or patchy open forest. Most Indian populations appear to be resident. In Cambodia, it is known to make relatively local seasonal movements in response to the flooding regime of the Tonle Sap lake: in the dry season, the species breeds in grasslands in the inundation zone of the lake; it then moves to nearby open forest areas during the wet season. During the breeding season males preferentially select habitats related to low-intensity human activity, chiefly burned grassland, whereas females primarily select unburned grassland but also use unburned, uncultivated grassland in dry-season rice head-ponds (Gray et al.
2009), although anecdotal evidence suggests that eggs are laid in small pockets of medium to tall grass in recently burnt areas (R. van Zalinge, pers. obs.).Threats
The key threats are the extensive loss and modification of grasslands through drainage, conversion to agriculture and plantations, overgrazing, inappropriate cutting, burning and ploughing regimes, heavy flooding, invasion of alien species, scrub expansion, dam construction and inappropriate and illegal development (Brahma and Lahkar 2009, Evans et al
. 2009; van Zalinge et al.
2009). In particular, the spread of dry season rice cultivation in Cambodia is rapidly converting existing grassland habitat. Land sales and concessions are often pushed through despite resistance from local villagers (Evans et al
. 2009). Excessive hunting for sport and food may have triggered its decline, but owing to advocacy and law enforcement is no longer a serious threat, at least in Cambodia. At least in South Asia, most populations are small, isolated and vulnerable to local extirpation. Other threats may include human disturbance and trampling of nests by livestock. Detailed research into the species' ecology in Cambodia demonstrated that the effects of human disturbance are weak and annual burning is important for maintaining suitable habitat, supporting the idea that community-based grassland management that maintains traditional agricultural practices will benefit Bengal Floricans. This has implications for the species' management in South Asia, where remaining (and declining) populations are largely confined to strict protected areas in which such practices may not be occurring (Gray et al.
2007). Further study has revealed that, whilst burned grassland is selected by males during the breeding season, unburned grassland and other habitats providing cover are selected by females, demonstrating the need for appropriate grassland management in conservation areas that provides a variety of habitats to ensure the survival of this species (Gray et al.
2009).Conservation actions underway
CITES Appendix I and II. Several populations occur within protected areas, the most important being the Bengal Florican Conservation Area (BFCA) network in Cambodia (see Mahood et al
. 2012), Chitwan National Park, Royal Bardia National Park and Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal, Kaziranga, Dibru-Saikhowa and Dudwa National Parks, India. Tiny, perhaps unsustainable populations may still remain at Ang Trapeang Thmor Sarus Crane Reserve, Cambodia and within the Mekong Delta at Boeung Prek Lapouv Sarus Crane Reserve, Cambodia and Tram Chim National Park, Vietnam. A PhD research project investigating movements and habitat requirements in the non-breeding season began in 2007 and at least 19 birds have been fitted with satellite or radio transmitters (Packman 2008, 2009), the data from which have revealed previously unknown non-breeding sites (Packman 2009). The Wildlife Conservation Society, BirdLife International and their government partners are engaged in a programme of conservation activities in the Tonle Sap floodplain of Cambodia, aimed at reducing habitat loss and hunting pressure on the species (A. W. Tordoff in litt
. 2007). Achievements so far include the designation of 173 km2
of breeding and 138 km2
of non-breeding habitat as Bengal Florican Conservation Areas (BFCAs). Populations in the BFCAs and in adjacent areas has been monitored annually since 2008 using a survey which employs a randomised sampling design to measure occupancy of 1km2
squares by displaying males which allows results to be extrapolated within and across sites to obtain accurate population and trend data. These data indicate that the population is probably stable at some BFCAs and possibly declining in others and in adjacent areas (van Zalinge et al.
2009, 2010, Mahood et al.
2012)). Suitable habitat in BFCAs continues to be lost to various threats, including the expansion of dry season rice cultivation and dam construction (van Zalinge et al
. 2010), although overall habitat loss outside of BFCAs has been much greater. Work is on-going to maintain effective management structures for these areas and build constituencies of support for their conservation among local stakeholders. Official patrol teams are now operating in Kampong Thom and Siem Reap, and in both provinces the Forestry Administration working through provincial commissions, has already halted several proposed developments which would otherwise have destroyed vital breeding habitat (Eames 2007, van Zalinge et al
. 2009, 2010, Mahood et al.
2012). Changes in land use in the Tonle Sap floodplain and in the BFCAs in particular are also monitored with the aid of aerial and/or satellite images (Gray et al
. 2009, van Zalinge et al.
2009). When land encroachment in the BFCAs is detected through patrols or satellite-monitoring WCS facilitates meetings between the parties concerned to resolve disputes and reverse encroachment. An in-depth socio-economic study has been conducted by the Centre d'Etude et de Développement Agricole Cambodgien. The report highlights the economic benefits local communities derive through the traditional use of grasslands and is used to build support among key decision makers and local communities. An awareness programme covering 71 villages and over 3,200 people was conducted in 2008/9 and school and village outreach is ongoing. Training in selected villages was conducted to improve agricultural systems and reduce the immediate pressure on grasslands from people wanting to convert grasslands into agriculture (BirdLife International 2009). Villagers receive financial rewards for reporting nests which they incidentally found as a deterrent against collecting and eating the eggs; finders receive an additional financial reward if the nest fledges successfully, although nest-finders are discouraged from protecting the nests directly to reduce accidental disturbance to birds (van Zalinge et al
. 2009, van Zalinge et al.
2010, Mahood et al
. 2012). At the four breeding season BFCAs community management committees have been established to act as intermediaries between WCS, government partners and the communities, they assist in awareness raising, patrolling and reporting illegal activities in the BFCAs. At one of the BFCAs rice is purchased at a premium from local farmers abiding by conservation agreements under a wildlife-friendly rice initiative and community members gain an additional income from acting as guides to birdwatchers visiting the site through the Sam Veasna Centre. These activities appear to be having some early success in arresting the rapid decline of the species in Cambodia, but their long-term outcome remains to be seen. A range-wide survey of the Cambodian population will be completed in early 2012 (L. Packman in litt
. 2012)Conservation actions proposed
Continue annual monitoring of the population in the BFCAs, Cambodia, and replicate the monitoring protocol in key sites in India and Nepal. Conduct research on Bengal Florican breeding productivity, and habitat utilisation in breeding and non-breeding BFCAs .Introduce a protected area management regime, including appropriate rotational burning, grazing and cutting based on research findings. Promote grassland conservation awareness initiatives in all range countries. Strengthen the legal protection for existing BFCAs and expand the network (van Zalinge et al
. 2009, 2010). Continue surveys for populations, particularly in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage, Nepal (Poudyal 2007). Identify additional important sites for birds in the non-breeding season in Cambodia. Extend, upgrade and link protected areas in India and Nepal, and establish new ones. Devise and promote a conservation strategy for all Asian bustards. Share best practice guidelines for management of small bustards in grassland habitats across Europe and Asia.
Rahmani, A. R. 2001. Status of the Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Uttar Pradesh, India.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Baral, N.; Timilsina, N.; Tamang, B. 2003. Status of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal. Forktail 19: 51-55.
Packman, C. 2009. Conservation ecology of Bengal Florican in Cambodia: update October 2009. The Babbler: BirdLife in Indochina: 29.
van Zalinge, R.; Evans, T.; Hong Chamnan; Ro Borei; Packman, C. 2009. Bengal Floricans in the integrated farming and biodiversity areas. The Babbler: BirdLife in Indochina: 27-28.
Gray, T. N. E.; Chamnan, H.; Borey, R.; Collar, N. J.; Dolman, P. M. 2007. Habitat preferences of a globally threatened bustard provide support for community-based conservation in Cambodia. Biological Conservation 138: 341-350.
Eames, J. C. 2007. Conserving Bengal Floricans and improving rural livelihoods at the Tonle Sap, the world's largest floodplain lake, Cambodia. The Babbler: BirdLife in Indochina: 25-27.
Poudyal, L. P. 2007. Status and distribution of Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal.
Packman, C. 2008. Conservation ecology of the Bengal Florican in Cambodia. The Babbler: BirdLife in Indochina: 40.
Packman, C. 2008. Conservation ecology of Bengal Florican: update August 2008. The Babbler: BirdLife in Indochina: 35-37.
Gray, T. N. E.; Collar, N. J.; Davidson, P. J. A.; Dolman, P. M.; Evans, T. D.; Fox, H. H.; Hong Chanman; Borey, R.; Seng Kim Hout; Van Zalinge, R. N. 2009. Distribution, status and conservation of the Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Cambodia. Bird Conservation International 19(1): 1-14.
BirdLife International. 2009. Species Guardian Action Update: February 2009 - Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/extinction/pdfs/Bengal_Florican_Guardian_updates_Feb09.pdf.
Gray, T. N. E.; Hong Chamnan; Collar, N. J.; Dolman, P. M. 2009. Sex-specific habitat use by a lekking bustard: conservation implications for the critically endangered Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis) in an intensifying agroecosystem. The Auk 126(1): 112-122.
Evans, T.; van Zalinge, R.; Hong Chamnan; Ro Borie; Seng Kimhout; Packman, C. 2009. Bengal Floricans in the Tonle Sap floodplain: 2007/8 monitoring report.
van Zalinge, R.; Son Virak; Evans, T.; Hong Chamnan. 2010. The status of Bengal Floricans in the Bengal Florican conservation areas: 2009/10 monitoring report.
Mahood, S., Son Virak, Hong Chamnan and Evans, T. 2012. The status of Bengal Florican in the Bengal Florican Conservation Areas, 2010/11 monitoring report. Wildlife Conservation Society Cambodia Program, Phnom Penh.
Baral, H. S., Ram, A. K., Chaudhary, B., Basnet, S., Chaudhary, H., Giri, T. R. and Chaudhary, D. 2012. Conservation Status of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Gruiformes: Otididae) in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas, eastern Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3): 2464-2469.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
Species Guardian Action Update
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Crosby, M., Davidson, P., Peet, N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
Chamnan, H., Evans, T., Gray, T., Hogberg, S., Mahood, S., Packman, L., Tordoff, A., vanZalinge, R.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Houbaropsis bengalensis. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species