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Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,550,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,550,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 40000-50000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: The population in Kazakhstan was estimated at c.49,000 in 2011. Added to a population likely to number 4,000-6,000 birds in China and Mongolia (O. Combreau in litt. 2012), this gives an estimate of 53,000-55,000 for the east Asian migrant population. This is thought to represent around 50% of the global population, and so a very preliminary estimate of the global population is 106,000-110,000 individuals. This is placed in the band 100,000-499,999 individuals to account for uncertainty.
Trend justification: The species declined by c.35% from 1984-2004, but this rate has now slowed as a result of increases in North Africa, driven by a captive breeding and release programme. Rates of decline are inferred as 40-50% in east Asia (50% of the global population) and 25% in west Asia (20% of the global population), with the rate increase in North Africa (30% of the global population) estimated at 1-10%. This gives an overall current decline rate of c.20-29%. Because of the rapid decline rate leading up to 2004, the species is still thought to have shown an overall decline of over 30% in the last three generations (c.20 years).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Algeria Native Extant Yes    
Armenia Native Extant   Yes  
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant     Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Cyprus Vagrant Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant Yes    
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Vagrant Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Greece Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Native Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Latvia Vagrant Extant      
Lebanon Vagrant Extant     Yes
Libya Native Extant Yes    
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant Yes    
Nepal Unknown Extant     Yes
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes  
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Vagrant Extant      
Romania Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant      
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant      
Spain Native Extant      
Sudan Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant   Yes  
Tunisia Native Extant Yes    
Turkey Native Extinct Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Vagrant Extant      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Yemen Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
China (mainland) Baytik Shan site factsheet
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Mori Grassland site factsheet
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand site factsheet
India Desert National Park site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahram-e-Gour Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Gabi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormod Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kalmand Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran site factsheet
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands site factsheet
Israel Western Negev site factsheet
Jordan Azraq site factsheet
Jordan Burqu' site factsheet
Jordan Wadi Araba site factsheet
Mongolia Achit Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Borzon Gobi site factsheet
Mongolia Galba Gobi site factsheet
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Oman Jiddat al Harasis site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah site factsheet
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares site factsheet
Spain Famara sandy plain site factsheet
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain site factsheet
Spain Lajares sandy plain-Cotillo-Ezquinzo site factsheet
Spain Los Molinos gully-Plain of La Laguna site factsheet
Spain Peninsula of Jandía site factsheet
Spain Plains of La Corona-Las Honduras site factsheet
Spain Plains of Mareta-Hoya de la Yegua site factsheet
Spain Sandy plain of Corralejo site factsheet
Syria Jabal al-Bishri site factsheet
Syria Jabal Sis and surroundings site factsheet
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabbul site factsheet
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains site factsheet
Syria Wadi al-Azib site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garabil site factsheet
Turkmenistan Repetek site factsheet
Uzbekistan Buzaubay site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern part of the Assake-Audan depression site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Saiga Nature Sanctuary site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan The desert around Kurkuduk village site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot major breeding
Desert Hot major non-breeding
Desert Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chlamydotis undulata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Otididae (Bustards)
Species name author (Jacquin, 1784)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,550,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species