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Great Bustard Otis tarda

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 440,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 440,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 14 - - -
Population justification: Alonso and Palacín (2010) estimate the global population to number 44,054-57,005 individuals, rounded here to 44,000-57,000 individuals.
Trend justification: Despite a lack of accurate data on trends in several countries with important populations (e.g. Russia, Mongolia, China, Turkey, Ukraine), a rapid and on-going population decline is suspected overall, owing to habitat loss and fragmentation for agricultural intensification, as well as hunting and collision with power lines. Should research show the species to be declining at a more moderate rate, it would warrant downlisting to a lower threat category.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Vagrant Extant        
Algeria Unknown Extinct        
Armenia Native Extant     Yes  
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Belarus Native Extinct        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Reintroduced Extant   Yes    
Georgia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Germany Native Extant       Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Latvia Vagrant Extant        
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Vagrant Extinct        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Vagrant Extant        
Poland Native Extinct Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Vagrant Extinct Yes      
Switzerland Vagrant Extinct Yes      
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Tajikistan Native Extant     Yes  
Tunisia Vagrant Extant        
Turkey Native Extant     Yes Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extinct        
Uzbekistan Native Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Sardarapat site factsheet
Austria Austrian part of Hanság site factsheet
Austria Central Marchfeld site factsheet
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte site factsheet
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden site factsheet
Austria Western Weinviertel site factsheet
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe site factsheet
China (mainland) Ayding Kol site factsheet
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayan Obo Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Baytik Shan site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidagang site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Binzhou coastal islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Caimushan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Damaoqi site factsheet
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Helan Shan Nature Reserve (Ningxia) site factsheet
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Honggolj Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ili River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Jinta site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Karamay desert and lakes site factsheet
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Minqin site factsheet
China (mainland) Mori Grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Qilihai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sayram Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui) site factsheet
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area site factsheet
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulgai site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Weinan Sanhe wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yaojingzi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain site factsheet
China (mainland) Yiwulü Shan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Bihar Plain site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa site factsheet
Hungary Heves Plain site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Moson Plain site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Divandareh/Zarrineh Owbatu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gordeh Git and Mamiyand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Plains near Ghorveh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i Jowin and Rud-i Kalshur site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shirvan area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tayebad plains at Ghoomi and Sarhad site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Telesm plain site factsheet
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Arystandy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhusandala site factsheet
Mongolia Achit Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Airkhan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Bulgan Tal site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers site factsheet
Mongolia Erkhel Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ganga Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Nomrog site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Selenge - Teel site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tarialan site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Ulaagchinii Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Morocco Oued Tahadart site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Daedong Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Bujon site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
Portugal Alter do Chão site factsheet
Portugal Campo Maior site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Cuba site factsheet
Portugal Évora plains site factsheet
Portugal Monforte plains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Agar-Dag site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Urul'guveem hollow site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Balka Yablonya site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Drofiny area site factsheet
Russia (European) Dudarevskaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Estonka site site factsheet
Russia (European) Fields near village Voskresenk site factsheet
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kumysni pond site site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Il'inka site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Lepekhinka site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Pervomaiskoye site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Rekord site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Timofeevo site factsheet
Russia (European) Rovno area site factsheet
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river site factsheet
Russia (European) Siniye mountains site factsheet
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Zeleni Dol village site factsheet
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Eruslan village site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Poltavka village site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of Voznesensk village site factsheet
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Yasnaya Polyana site site factsheet
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Zhestyanka site factsheet
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area site factsheet
Slovakia Syslovské fields site factsheet
Spain Alange site factsheet
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares site factsheet
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes site factsheet
Spain Alto Guadiato site factsheet
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor site factsheet
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo site factsheet
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan site factsheet
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno site factsheet
Spain Borbollón reservoir site factsheet
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey site factsheet
Spain Brozas-Membrío site factsheet
Spain Campo de Calatrava site factsheet
Spain Campo de Montiel site factsheet
Spain Carmona countryside site factsheet
Spain Carrión-Frómista site factsheet
Spain Cerrato high moor site factsheet
Spain Condado-Campiña site factsheet
Spain Córdoba countryside site factsheet
Spain Cortados del Jarama site factsheet
Spain Don Benito-Guareña site factsheet
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain site factsheet
Spain Esla dam site factsheet
Spain Fuentelapeña-Jambrina site factsheet
Spain Gallocanta lake site factsheet
Spain La Serena site factsheet
Spain Los Monegros (South) site factsheet
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz site factsheet
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina site factsheet
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera site factsheet
Spain Oropesa plains site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez site factsheet
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo site factsheet
Spain San Pedro mountain range site factsheet
Spain Talamanca-Camarma site factsheet
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer site factsheet
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet
Spain Topas site factsheet
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués site factsheet
Spain Torrijos site factsheet
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa site factsheet
Spain Villafáfila site factsheet
Spain Villalba de los Barros site factsheet
Spain Villanueva del Fresno site factsheet
Spain West Andévalo site factsheet
Syria Ras al-Ayn site factsheet
Syria Tual al-'Abba site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Acıgöl Lake site factsheet
Turkey Aliken site factsheet
Turkey Altıntaş Plateau site factsheet
Turkey Bismil Plain site factsheet
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains site factsheet
Turkey Ceylanpınar site factsheet
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü site factsheet
Turkey Karasu Plain site factsheet
Turkey Kavuştuk Peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Muş Plain site factsheet
Turkey Patnos site factsheet
Turkey Samsam Lake site factsheet
Turkey Sarayönü site factsheet
Turkey Seyfe Lake site factsheet
Turkey Tuz Lake site factsheet
Turkey Upper Murat Valley site factsheet
Turkey Van Plains site factsheet
Turkey Yenipazar site factsheet
Turkey Yüksekova site factsheet
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village) site factsheet
Ukraine Bagerove site factsheet
Ukraine Bilogir'ya site factsheet
Ukraine Chauda site factsheet
Ukraine Gajchur river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar) site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Otis tarda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Otididae (Bustards)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 440,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species