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Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 990,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 990,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 1997
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population (excluding c.20,000 individuals in Kazakhstan) has been estimated at a minimum of c.240,000 individuals (C. Martínez in litt. 1999).
Trend justification: Despite some local population increases reported (e.g. Kazakhstan [N. Petkov in litt. 2012]), overall the population is estimated to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Algeria Native Extinct      
Armenia Native Extant     Yes
Austria Native Extinct Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes
Belarus Native Extinct      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extinct Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Vagrant Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extinct Yes    
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant     Yes
Georgia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Germany Native Extinct Yes    
Greece Native Extinct Yes    
Hungary Native Extinct Yes    
India Native Extant   Yes  
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant   Yes  
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Unknown Extant   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Latvia Vagrant Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes  
Libya Unknown Extant   Yes  
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Moldova Native Extinct Yes    
Montenegro Native Extinct Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extinct Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Romania Unknown Extant      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Serbia Native Extinct Yes    
Slovakia Native Extinct Yes    
Spain Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Unknown Extant      
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Unknown Extant Yes   Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Algeria Marais de la Macta site factsheet
Armenia Sardarapat site factsheet
Azerbaijan Korchai area site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul site factsheet
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe site factsheet
Azerbaijan Sheki upland site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Etangs Montpellierains site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants site factsheet
France Gorges du Gardon site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée site factsheet
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest) site factsheet
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est) site factsheet
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves site factsheet
France Plaine de Villefagnan site factsheet
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou site factsheet
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux site factsheet
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes site factsheet
France Plateau de Valensole site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize site factsheet
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique site factsheet
Georgia Alazani Valley site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sagyz site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Portugal Albufeira do Caia site factsheet
Portugal Alter do Chão site factsheet
Portugal Cabrela site factsheet
Portugal Campo Maior site factsheet
Portugal Castro Marim site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Côa valley site factsheet
Portugal Cuba site factsheet
Portugal Évora plains site factsheet
Portugal Monforte plains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Reguengos de Monsaraz site factsheet
Portugal River Guadiana site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the river Uj site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the rivers Big Karaganka and Syntasty site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Kalininsky site factsheet
Russia (European) Algaiski site factsheet
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube site factsheet
Russia (European) Budary lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulukhta area site factsheet
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Chonta site factsheet
Russia (European) Cranes area site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Drofinyi area site factsheet
Russia (European) Erdniyevskaya area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake El'ton site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river site factsheet
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river site factsheet
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village site factsheet
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Rovno area site factsheet
Russia (European) Salt lakes "Manych" site factsheet
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river site factsheet
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon site factsheet
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley site factsheet
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Turali lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon site factsheet
Russia (European) Tyuleni island site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen site factsheet
Russia (European) Zhestyanka site factsheet
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area site factsheet
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes site factsheet
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes site factsheet
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor site factsheet
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo site factsheet
Spain Bardenas Reales site factsheet
Spain Belchite-Mediana site factsheet
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno site factsheet
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey site factsheet
Spain Campo de Calatrava site factsheet
Spain Campo de Montiel site factsheet
Spain Campo Visiedo site factsheet
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes site factsheet
Spain Condado-Campiña site factsheet
Spain Córdoba countryside site factsheet
Spain Don Benito-Guareña site factsheet
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes site factsheet
Spain La Limia site factsheet
Spain La Serena site factsheet
Spain Lerida steppes site factsheet
Spain Los Monegros (South) site factsheet
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina site factsheet
Spain Montánchez mountain range-Cornalvo reservoir site factsheet
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera site factsheet
Spain Oropesa plains site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo site factsheet
Spain Talamanca-Camarma site factsheet
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer site factsheet
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués site factsheet
Spain Torrijos site factsheet
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa site factsheet
Spain West Andévalo site factsheet
Turkey Tuz Lake site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen site factsheet
Ukraine Bagerove site factsheet
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tetrax tetrax. Downloaded from on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Otididae (Bustards)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 990,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species