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Tooth-billed Pigeon Didunculus strigirostris

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered C2a(i) 
Endangered A2cde+3cde; B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D 
Vulnerable A2cde+3cde; B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Critically Endangered
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 medium Estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1-50 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals (U. Beichle in litt. 2000); however, the low number of recent records and lack of sightings by local people strongly suggest that the population is now extremely small, thus it is placed in the band for 50-249 mature individuals, assumed to equate to c.70-380 individuals in total. It is estimated that there are no more than 50 mature individuals in each of the two presumed sub-populations, on Upolu and Savai'i.
Trend justification: No new data are available on population trends, but the species is suspected to have undergone a very rapid decline over the past three generations (estimated at 20 years), based on the low number of recent records, and owing to the partially synergistic effects of forest degradation by cyclones and invasive tree species, as well as accidental mortality from hunting and direct loss of habitat through agricultural expansion. This assessment of the rate of decline may be conservative given the perceived change in abundance since the 1990s and the potential impacts of Severe Tropical Cyclone Evan in December 2012 (R. Stirnemann in litt. 2012). It is suspected that a very rapid decline will take place over the next three generations if conservation actions are not increased, owing to the expected impacts of intermittent powerful cyclones and the inherent consequences of the species's extremely small population size.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Samoa Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Samoa Aleipata Marine Protected Area site factsheet
Samoa Apia Catchments site factsheet
Samoa Central Savaii Rainforest site factsheet
Samoa Eastern Upolu Craters site factsheet
Samoa O Le Pupu-Pu'e National Park site factsheet
Samoa Uafato-Tiavea Forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Didunculus strigirostris. Downloaded from on 06/10/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 06/10/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Jardine, 1845)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species