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Western Crowned-pigeon Goura cristata

Justification
This spectacular pigeon is classified as Vulnerable because its population is suspected to be rapidly declining, through habitat loss and hunting. However, the total population size, the effect and extent of habitat degradation and the impact of hunting and trade are all poorly known, and further research may lead to its reclassification.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
66 cm. Huge terrestrial pigeon with large sagittal crest. Blue-grey plumage with maroon shoulder and mantle patch, and variable black spots (some birds are entirely black). Similar spp. Southern Crowned-pigeon G. scheepmakeri, to south-east of range, has maroon underparts. Victoria Crowned-pigeon G. victoria, to north-east of range, has maroon breast and white-tipped crest. Voice Quiet, resonating booms.

Distribution and population
Goura cristata occurs in the West Papuan Islands (Misool, Waigeo, Salawati, Batanta), the Vogelkop and western Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), west of Geelvink and Etna Bays, Indonesia (King and Nijboer 1994), and also on Seram, South Maluku (Kitchener et al. 1993, Macdonald 1995), where it was almost certainly introduced (Coates and Bishop 1997). It was historically common (Rand and Gilliard 1967), and remains locally fairly common at several sites on mainland Papua (Erftemeijer et al. 1991, Gibbs 1993, Poulsen and Frolander 1994), Salawati (Gibbs 1993, Poulsen and Frolander 1994, Eastwood 1996b) and Seram (Macdonald 1995, Coates and Bishop 1997), but may be extinct on Batanta (D. Gibbs in litt. 1994), and has been extirpated from many sites on Papua (King and Nijboer 1994).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species suffers heavily from hunting for food and plumes, and for trade. These factors, together with loss of forest habitat, are suspected to be driving a rapid population decline.

Ecology
It inhabits marshy and partly flooded forest, usually undisturbed alluvial forest, but also hill forest, dense secondary growth and mangroves, up to at least 350 m (Bishop 1982, Beehler et al. 1986, Coates and Bishop 1997). Pairs incubate a single egg for a month, tend the nestling for a further month and continue to feed the fledgling for several months (King and Nijboer 1994).

Threats
It is heavily hunted for food and its plumes (although less than the two other Goura species because gun ownership is lower in Indonesia than in Papua New Guinea) (Beehler 1985), and is also subject to "significant" levels of trade, being a highly prized aviary bird (King and Nijboer 1994). Extensive logging concessions have been granted within its range and habitat has already been lost to substantial transmigration schemes (Collins et al. 1991). Logging roads and oil and mineral exploration also increase access for hunters (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.  Part of the European Endangered [Species] Programme of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria.  The species is afforded some protection in Indonesia from commercial trade and domestic use (Nichols et al. 1991). There are single protected areas on all the West Papuan Islands of occurrence and three very large proposed nature reserves within its mainland Papuan range, but most are in the mountains (Sujatnika et al. 1995).  Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive surveys to clarify its current distribution and population status. Ascertain tolerance of logged forest. Monitor populations in well-studied protected areas. Investigate hunting, and devise and implement appropriate controls. Investigate international and domestic trade, and devise and implement appropriate controls. Support formal designation of the proposed nature reserves on mainland Papua. Enforce protection in these protected areas.

References
Beehler, B. 1985. Conservation of New Guinea rainforest birds. In: Diamond, A.W.; Lovejoy, T.E. (ed.), Conservation of tropical forest birds, pp. 233-247. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Beehler, B. M.; Pratt, T. K.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bishop, K. D. 1982. Endemic birds of Biak Island.

Coates, B. J.; Bishop, K. D. 1997. A guide to the birds of Wallacea. Dove, Alderley, Australia.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collins, N. M.; Sayer, J. A.; Whitmore, T. C. 1991. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. Macmillan, London.

Eastwood, C. 1996. A trip to Irian Jaya. Muruk 8(1): 12-23.

Erftemeijer, P.; Allen, G.; Kosamah, Z.; Kosamah, S. 1991. Birds of the Bintuni Bay region, Irian Jaya. Kukila 5(2): 85-98.

European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. EEPs and ESBs. Available at: http://www.eaza.net/activities/cp/Pages/EEPs.aspx.

Gibbs, D. 1993. Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 21 January--12 March 1991: a site guide for birdwatchers, with brief notes from 1992.

King, C. E.; Nijboer, J. 1994. Conservation considerations for crowned pigeons, genus Goura. Oryx 28: 22-30.

Kitchener, A. C.; Macdonald, A. A.; Howard, A. 1993. First record of the Blue Crowned Pigeon Goura cristata on Seram. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113: 42-43.

Macdonald, A. A. 1995. Distribution of Blue Crowned Pigeon Goura cristata on north Seram. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 115: 33-35.

Nichols, D. G.; Fuller, K. S.; McShane-Caluzi, E.; Klerner-Ecknrode, E. 1991. Wildlife trade laws of Asia and Oceania. TRAFFIC USA/WWF, Washington, DC.

Poulsen, B. O.; Frolander, A. 1994. Birding Irian Jaya, Indonesian New Guinea.

Rand, A. L.; Gilliard, E. T. 1967. Handbook of New Guinea birds. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.

Sujatnika; Jepson, P.; Soehartono, T. R.; Crosby, M. J.; Mardiastuti, A. 1995. Conserving Indonesian biodiversity: the Endemic Bird Area approach. BirdLife International Indonesia Programme, Bogor.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Crosby, M., Dutson, G., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Bishop, K., Gibbs, D., Beehler, B.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Goura cristata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Western crowned-pigeon (Goura cristata) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Pallas, 1764)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 83,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species