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Mindoro Imperial-pigeon Ducula mindorensis
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Justification
This pigeon is listed as Endangered owing to a recent assessment of available habitat which indicated that its range and population, both of which are declining as a result of the continuing rapid reduction in the extent and quality of forest, were much smaller than previously thought.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
47 cm. Large, montane pigeon. Light blue-grey head, neck and most of underparts, washed rufous on vent and undertail-coverts. Pinkish forehead, lower face and throat. Red orbital skin surrounded by blackish ring which extends into short post-ocular stripe. Bronzy-red hindneck and mantle, emerald-green lower back, rump and wings, bronzy-red inner wing-coverts edged. Blackish-green flight feathers and tail with pale grey central tail-band. Yellow iris, dark bill, reddish legs. Similar spp. Pink-bellied Imperial-pigeon D. poliocephala is smaller and shows prominent, dark breast-band. Voice Undocumented. Hints Look for flocks flying over the canopy early morning and late afternoon.

Distribution and population
Ducula mindorensis is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines, where it is known from seven localities in the central mountains (although it was presumably once present throughout the highlands), with records from five sites since 1980 (Collar et al. 1999). It has always been uncommon and local, occurring at low densities. However, 22 individuals were seen or heard over six days on Mt Ilong in 1991, indicating that the species may be under-recorded, particularly if fieldworkers are unfamiliar with its vocalisations.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Hunting and deforestation are suspected to be causing this species to decline at a moderately rapid to rapid rate.

Ecology
At least formerly it was usually found in forest above 1,000 m, with records spanning 700-1,830 m. However, during fieldwork in 1991, most observations were made in understorey trees of the lowest-altitude forest remaining (between 800-950 m), with only two noted above 1,000 m. It conceivably undertakes seasonal or nomadic movements in response to changes in food supply.

Threats
Forest destruction and hunting for food (Ducula pigeons are common targets for subsistence hunters throughout the Philippines) are the most significant threats. In 1988, just 120 km2 of Mindoro remained forested, of which just 25% was closed-canopy. Although it generally occurs above the zone of greatest deforestation, this does not confer security if it periodically depends on fruiting events at lower elevations. Logging and shifting cultivation continue to reduce lower-altitude forests at key sites such as Mt Halcon and San Vicente.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. In 1964, the species was removed from the list of game birds, and soon afterwards was afforded legal protection, although actual enforcement of this legislation is ineffectual. A (presumably tiny) population may persist in the predominantly grassland Mt Iglit-Baco National Park. The species featured on a bilingual environmental awareness poster focusing on pigeons produced as part of the "Only in the Philippines" series in the mid-1990s. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys (using vocalisations as an aid to detection and making sound recordings) in remaining submontane and montane forests on Mindoro, to clarify its current status. Research its ecology, including determining food sources, tree phenology and seasonal movements. Propose all remaining forest on Mt Halcon for improved protected status.

References
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Lowen, J., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Allen, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ducula mindorensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Columbidae (Doves and pigeons)
Species name author (Whitehead, 1896)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species