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Whistling Dove Chrysoena viridis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700 medium Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Population justification: Recent BirdLife Fiji surveys found this species to be common in evergreen forests, with 53 birds recorded (mostly calling males) in 23.5 hours a mixed lowland and montane site and 17 birds in 15 hours at a montane site. Estimating an average pace 1 km / hour and an effective detection distance of 50 m each side of the trail suggests that around 23 and 11 birds were detected per km2 at these sites, mostly calling males. There are a number of likely errors in this estimate, especially the number of silent birds overlooked and the species' higher abundance at lower altitudes (where calling males can be as little as 100 m apart). The area of dense and medium-dense forest on Kadavu is around 225 km2, suggesting that the total population is around 10,000 birds. However the species also occurs on the island of Ono which probably constitutes a second sub-population (as this and other Chrysoena doves are rarely seen flying outside forest and have not been recorded from smaller islands), numbering about 5% of the total population (G. Duston in litt. 2005). In total the population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining based on rate of habitat loss. The population trend is estimated to be declining at the same rate as forest loss and degradation on Kadavu, which is estimated to be 0.5-0.8 % per year across Fiji (Claasen 1991), but probably higher on Kadavu which has suffered extensive fires in recent years. The population may therefore be declining at a rate that approaches 10% in ten years (G. Duston in litt. 2005).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Fiji Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Fiji East Kadavu site factsheet
Fiji Nabukelevu site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chrysoena viridis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Elliot, 1878
Population size 6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species