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Carunculated Fruit-dove Ptilinopus granulifrons

Justification
This forest frugivore qualifies as Vulnerable because its small population is suspected to be undergoing a continuing decline owing to habitat loss and degradation.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
20-24 cm. Medium-sized, arboreal pigeon. Largely green, strongly tinged golden-yellow. Grey head, patches on scapulars and inner wing-coverts. Purple patch on belly edged with yellow. Pale yellow undertail-coverts and vent. Protruberant fleshy knob on cere. Male has yellowish bill, female has greenish bill. Similar spp. Blue-capped Fruit-dove P. monacha lacks caruncle, has blue cap, yellow throat and flash behind eye. Scarlet-breasted Fruit-dove P. bernsteini also lacks caruncle, male has scarlet patch on breast. Voice Undocumented.

Distribution and population
Ptilinopus granulifrons is endemic to the island of Obi, North Maluku, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). It is widespread, generally scarce, but locally common, although like its congeners it is probably easily overlooked.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Logging and mining are driving forest loss on the island of Obi and as a result this species is suspected to be in decline.

Ecology
It inhabits primary, lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen rainforest and a mosaic of scrub and lightly wooded cultivation, from 40 m up to 550 m, generally frequenting the canopy and subcanopy, where it feeds chiefly on fruit. It is assumed to be resident, but it may perhaps make local movements in response to fruiting events.

Threats
Obi is a small island, and any deforestation would be problematic for this species, particularly given its predilection for lowland forest habitats. Much of the lower-lying forest has already been logged, much of the remainder is under logging concession, and illegal gold mining is reported to be destroying some areas of forest. Furthermore, areas proposed for protection only include land at 500 m and above.

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted actions are known. There is a proposed protected area, Pulau Obi, on the island, although it remains to be determined whether this is the most appropriate area for the conservation of threatened and endemic avifauna. There is also a move to protect Danau Saku, a freshwater lake which is quite likely to host numbers of this pigeon in its fringing forests. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys to clarify its current distribution, status and ecological requirements (particularly tolerance of habitat degradation). Investigate levels of hunting on Obi. Identify the most appropriate area for designation as a protected area, catering for this species and other endemic fauna.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ptilinopus granulifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Hartert, 1898
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species