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Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla
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Justification
This species qualifies as Endangered because it is restricted to four very small islands, including Saipan, where brown tree snake Boiga irregularis may be in the process of becoming established, and Tinian and Rota where the snake has also been detected. These three islands support 97% of the population. It formerly occurred on Guam, where it was extirpated by brown tree-snake. It is therefore very likely to undergo a rapid overall population decline in the immediate future.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
24 cm. Small, mostly green fruit-dove. Rose-red forehead, with the remainder of the head, neck, back and breast being silvery-grey, remaining upperparts green. Underparts mostly green with purple patch in lower breast, and yellow belly patch and undertail coverts. Voice Undescribed.

Distribution and population
Ptilinopus roseicapilla is fairly common on four islands in the Northern Mariana Islands (to USA), where it is primarily a bird of mature forest although it is also found in some moderately disturbed mixed woodland and second growth habitats (Engbring et al. 1982, Jenkins 1983, Craig 1996). It has become extirpated from Guam (to USA) owing to predation by the introduced brown tree snake Boiga irregularis, and although single birds turn up once every few years, these are almost certainly individuals dispersing from the island of Rota, 60 km to the north (G. Wiles in litt. 1999). In 1982, the total population was estimated at 9,443 birds, with 2,541 on Saipan, 3,075 on Tinian, 3,535 on Rota and 292 on Aguijan (Engbring et al. 1982). Surveys conducted over the last decade indicate that the species has increased on Aguijan (data from 2008 [Amidon et al. in prep]), declined on Rota (data from 2003 [Amar et al. 2008]) and Tinian (data from 2008, [Camp et al. in press]), and appears stable on Saipan (data from 2007 [Camp et al. 2009]). A recent "Promoting Protection through Pride" campaign on Rota has resulted in legislation fully protecting the species from hunting and trapping (T. Holm in litt. 2000). However, the species must be affected by habitat loss and is at great risk from the recent introduction of B. irregularis to Saipan, and the likely introduction to Tinian.

Population justification
The population was estimated at 9,443 birds in 1982, consisting of 2,541 on Saipan, 3,075 on Tinian, 3,535 on Rota and 292 on Aguijan. It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals here, equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Analysis of survey data from 1982, 1997 and 2007 indicates that the species' population appears stable on Saipan between 1982 and 2007 (Camp et al. 2009). Surveys in 2008 on Aguijan indicate that the population increased from estimates in 1982 (Amidon et al. in prep.). Surveys in 2008 on Tinian (Camp et al. in press) and 2003 on Rota (Amar et al. 2008) indicate a significant decline on those islands since 1982 . The species has been recently reported on the island of Sarigan, one of the volcanic islands north of Saipan, and may become established on the island through natural colonization. The future rate of decline may be very rapid on Saipan, owing to predation by B. irregularis.

Ecology
This species eats a variety of fruit from the forest canopy (Engbring et al. 1982) particularly from native Ficus spp. and Premna obtusifolia trees. It may also descend to feed in bushes or on the ground, where it takes the fruits of the introduced prostrate vine Momordica charantia (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It is found in a variety of forest types but appears more common in limestone forest (Craig 1996) and to prefer mature native forest (del Hoyo et al. 1997). On Aguijan it is found in heavily grazed forest and on Tinian in the scrubland of introduced Leucaena trees. It seems to breed all year round with a peak in breeding activity and consequently population size during April-July (Craig 1996). It lays one egg in a nest approximately 2.8 m from the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Threats
Persistent reports from the island of Saipan suggest that the brown tree snake may be in the process of becoming established on the island (Rodd and Savidge 2007), and has also been detected on Tinian and Rota (A. Saunders in litt. 2003, Williams 2004). Although it appears to not yet be established on Tinian and Rota (Amindon in litt. 2007), there is a risk it may be in the future since tourism development on Tinian necessitates the importation of large amounts of building materials (J. Lepson in litt. 1999). Unless the snake can be controlled on Guam and Saipan and prevented from becoming established on Tinian and Rota, the populations on three islands are likely to be extirpated rapidly. Other threats include the spread of introduced plant species, especially Leucaena, habitat destruction and hunting (del Hoyo et al. 1997).




Conservation Actions Underway
A recent "Promoting Protection through Pride" campaign on Rota has resulted in legislation fully protecting the species from hunting and trapping (T. Holm in litt. 2000). A brown tree-snake barrier was constructed at the port on Tinian and plans are underway to build a barrier at the port on Rota to support interdiction efforts (Amindon in litt. 2007, Hawley in litt. 2007). The Mariana fruit dove captive breeding program began in 1993 under the umbrella of the Mariana Archipelago Rescue & Survey (MARS) program and has now evolved into Mariana Avifauna Conservation Program (MAC) (H. Roberts et al. in litt. 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Control Boiga irregularis population by trapping and monitor its spread on Saipan. Take precautions to prevent the introduction of B. irregularis onto Tinian and Rota, such as traps and monitoring around the airport and harbour (J. Lepson in litt. 1999). Formulate species management plan, including development of the captive breeding populations, and consider introduction to snake-free islands. Monitor populations on Saipan to assess population trend following introduction of B. irregularis. Control the spread of introduced plant species, especially Leucaena. Implement an education program to help control hunting and limit habitat destruction.

References
Amar, A.; Amidon, F.; Arroyo, B.; Esselstyn, J. A.; Marshall, A. P. 2008. Population trends of the forest bird community on the Pacific island of Rota, Mariana Islands. Condor 110(3): 421-427.

Amidon, F., Camp, R. J., Marshall, A., Pratt, T. K., Williams, L., Radley, P. and Cruz, J. B. In prep. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna of Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

Camp, R. J., Amidon, F. A., Marshall, A. P. and Pratt,T. K. In press. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: Persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests. Pacific Science.

Camp, R. J.; Pratt, T. K.; Marshall, A. P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L. L. 2009. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia). Bird Conservation International 19(4): 323-337.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Craig, R. J. 1996. Seasonal population surveys and natural history of a Micronesian bird community. Wilson Bulletin 108: 246-267.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Engbring, J.; Ramsey, F. L.; Wildman, V. J. 1982. Micronesian forest bird survey, 1982: Saipan, Tinian, Agiguan, and Rota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu.

Jenkins, J. M. 1983. The native forest birds of Guam. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Rodda, G.H., and Savidge, J .A. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the brown tree snake (Reptilia: Colubridae). Pacific Science 61: 307-324.

Williams, S. 2004. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Endangered Status for the Rota Bridled White-Eye (Zosterops rotensis) from the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Federal Register 69(14): 3022-3029.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A.

Contributors
Amidon, F., Hawley, N., Roberts, H., Saunders, A., Holmes, T., Lepson, J., Wiles, G.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ptilinopus roseicapilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Mariana fruit-dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Lesson, 1831)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 330 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species