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Timor Green-pigeon Treron psittaceus
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The population of this species, which could be very small, is suspected to be declining rapidly, concurrent with the rapid reduction in its lowland forest habitat and intense hunting at least in part of its range (Roti). As a result, it is classified as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Treron psittacea Collar and Andrew (1988), Treron psittacea Collar et al. (1994), Treron psittacea BirdLife International (2000), Treron psittacea BirdLife International (2004), Treron psittacea Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

28 cm. Medium-sized, arboreal, green pigeon. Male slightly greyish-green, brighter on throat, rump and uppertail-coverts. Greyish-black wings with coverts fringed yellow. Green central tail-feathers, remainder grey with darker band. Vent and undertail-coverts white, tipped green. Female duller green with paler yellow wing-covert fringes. Similar spp. Only other green-coloured pigeon in range is Rose-crowned Fruit-dove Ptilinopus regina, and this has orange and yellow patches on underparts and pink crown in the male. Voice Series of 6-7 accelerating, descending see-saw notes and medley of high-pitched bubbling and gargling sounds.

Distribution and population
Treron psittaceus is endemic to Timor-Leste, West Timor and its satellite islands, Semau (although there are no recent data) and Roti, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where it appears to be uncommon or rare, and apparently very local (BirdLife International 2001). It has been infrequently recorded during recent fieldwork, although it is perhaps overlooked owing to its inconspicuous and very wary disposition. It is thought to have declined recently throughout West Timor, but is more common in Timor-Leste (Trainor et al. 2004), being described as scarce to moderately common at all locations visited during survey work in 2003 (Mauro 2003). Flocks of 50 birds and exceptionally 140 have been recorded in Timor recently and one record of a bird well away from forest indicates it may tolerate degraded habitat (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). On Roti it is apparently rare—the first was recorded in 1969 (Mees 1975), subsequently one bird was observed north-west of Sipu in 2004 (Trainor 2005) and two birds were seen near Daurendale hamlet (Sotimori village, East Roti) in August 2009 (F. Verbelen in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The species occurs very patchily and is absent from areas of apparently suitable habitat. It's global population is precautionarily estimated to lie within the band 1,000-3,000 individuals (C. Trainor in litt. 2012), roughly equivalent to 660-2,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The on-going clearance of lowland forest and widespread hunting pressure are suspected to be driving a rapid and continuing decline in this species's population.

It inhabits primary and tall secondary, lowland dry and monsoon-forest, mostly in the extreme lowlands, straggling up to 1,000 m (Mauro 2003, Trainor and Soares 2004, C. Trainor in litt. 2007). It is likely to be nomadic in response to the fruiting cycle of figs, and is usually encountered in small flocks containing tens of birds, exceptionally up to 140 individuals (C. Trainor in litt. 2007).

Loss of monsoon-forest has been severe in its range, and together, this and hunting represent the greatest threats to the species. The mountains of Timor-Leste were heavily deforested early in the 20th century, but habitat destruction has recently accelerated: an estimated 50% decline in remaining montane forest-cover occurred during Indonesian rule (1975-1999). Monsoon-forests now only cover an estimated 4% of West Timor, scattered in around seven unprotected patches that are continually declining in size due to intensive grazing and burning. Pigeons (including this species) are hunted extensively in Timor and have been in preceding decades during military occupation; the species is considered delicious and guns are widely available (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). It is a principal target of hunters on Roti where hunting pressure is intense (Trainor 2005).

Conservation Actions Underway
Recent surveys have identified several areas in West Timor to be of conservation importance to the island's endemic avifauna, one of which, Bipolo (although now only c.2 km2), supports the species and another, Camplong, did until very recently. Another site, Gunung Timau, is subject to an initiative to include it within the Gunung Mutis protected area. Recent surveys in Timor-Leste have located it at approximately ten sites (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). The recently designated Nino Konis Santana National Park supports a population estimated to number in the low hundreds (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys for the species using tape playback in remaining monsoon-forest tracts in Timor-Leste (when security problems allow) and West Timor, to assess its current distribution, movements, ecological constraints, status and threats (Mauro 2003). Propose key sites for establishment as strict protected areas. Strongly support initiatives to establish a nature reserve encompassing Gunung Mutis and Gunung Timau. Initiate conservation awareness programmes to elicit local support for forest conservation and reduce pigeon hunting.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Mauro, I. 2003. New and significant ornithological records from Asia’s newest country: Timor LesteMauro, I..

Mees, G. F. 1975. A list of the birds known from Roti and adjacent islets (Lesser Sunda Islands). Zoologische Mededelingen 49(12): 115-142.

Trainor, C. R. 2005. Birds of Tapuafa peninsula, Roti island, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia. Forktail 21: 121–131.

Trainor, C. R.; Santana, F.; Xavier, A.; dos Santos, L.; Xavier, F.; dos Lorenzo, J. 2004. Status of globally threatened, near threatened and restricted-range birds and internationally significant biodiversity sites in Timor-Leste (East Timor) based on participatory surveys.

Trainor, C. R.; Santana, F.; Xavier, A.; Xavier, F.; Da Silva, A. 2004. Status of globally threatened birds and internationally significant sites in East Timor based on rapid participatory biodiversity assessments - with particular reference to the Nino Conis Santana National Park (NCSNP).

Trainor, C.R.; Soares, T. 2004. Birds of Atauro Island, Timor-Leste (East Timor). Forktail 20: 41-48.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T

Trainor, C., Verbelen, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Treron psittaceus. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Timor green-pigeon (Treron psittaceus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Temminck, 1808)
Population size 660-2000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 19,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species