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Shy Ground-dove Alopecoenas stairi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,400 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 251-1000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: Recent surveys have found this species to be widespread but patchy and at low population densities on the larger Fijian islands. Surveys recorded an average of 0.11 birds / hour (a total of 54 birds). Estimating an average pace 1 km / hour and an effective detection distance of 50 m each side of the trail suggests that about 1 bird was detected per km2, mostly calling males. There are a number of likely errors in this estimate, especially the number of silent birds overlooked. The species was recorded at about 50% of the sites surveyed (16/34 sites) which were pre-selected to be the densest old-growth rainforest. If it assumed to occur in 50% of the forest, which covers about 40% of the species' Fijian EOO of about 17,500 km2, the total population is estimated to be 2,500-9,999 birds (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Trend justification: On Fiji the species is declining in line with habitat loss, and probably the affects of introduced mongooses; elsewhere hunting is an additional threat. The species's global population is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
American Samoa Native Extant Yes      
Fiji Native Extant       Yes
Samoa Native Extant Yes      
Tonga Native Extant Yes      
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Fiji East Kadavu site factsheet
Fiji Gau Highlands site factsheet
Fiji Greater Tomaniivi site factsheet
Fiji Koroyanitu/Vaturu site factsheet
Fiji Natewa/Tunuloa Peninsula site factsheet
Fiji Rairaimatuku Highlands site factsheet
Fiji Sovi Basin site factsheet
Fiji Taveuni Highlands site factsheet
Fiji Vatuvara site factsheet
Fiji Viti Levu Southern Highlands site factsheet
Fiji Wailevu/Dreketi Highlands site factsheet
Samoa Aleipata Marine Protected Area site factsheet
Samoa Central Savaii Rainforest site factsheet
Samoa Eastern Upolu Craters site factsheet
Tonga Fonualei site factsheet
Tonga Hunga Ha'apai, Hunga Tonga Islands site factsheet
Tonga Late site factsheet
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Alofi site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Small Asian Mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Alopecoenas stairi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Gray, 1856)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species