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White-throated Ground-dove Alopecoenas xanthonurus

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to hunting and habitat destruction. If brown tree-snake Boiga irregularis were to be accidentally introduced to other islands in its range, the species may warrant uplisting to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Alopecoenas xanthonurus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba as G. xanthonura.

Synonym(s)
Gallicolumba xanthonura (Temminck, 1823)

Distribution and population
Gallicolumba xanthonura occurs widely in the Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) and on Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia. It has become extirpated from Guam (to USA) owing to predation by the introduced brown tree snake Boiga irregularis, and although single birds turn up once every few years, these are almost certainly individuals dispersing from the island of Rota, 60 km to the north (G. Wiles in litt. 1999). The highest population is probably on Rota where c.2,400 birds were estimated in 1982 (Engbring et al. 1982), but this population is declining as a result of predation by the invasive tree snake (H. Roberts in litt. 2009). It is fairly common on Saipan where up to 72 birds/km2 were recorded in limestone forest in 1991-1993 (Craig 1996). It is rare on Yap where the population was estimated at c.195 in 1984 (Engbring et al. 1990).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as rare on Guam, uncommon in the Mariana islands north of Guam and uncommon on Yap (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Trend justification
Recent surveys apparently suggest the species is declining in line with known threats.

Ecology
The species inhabits native forest, secondary forest, plantations, introduced tangan-tangan Leucaena leucocephala thickets and habitat mosaics including fields, but appears more frequent in native forest than in disturbed habitats (Engbring et al. 1982, Jenkins 1983, Engbring et al. 1990, Craig 1996). In contrast to other Gallicolumba it is largely arboreal; it feeds in the forest canopy taking fruits, seeds and flowers.

Threats
The species can still be legally hunted in the Northern Mariana Islands (G. Wiles in litt. 1999) and must be affected by habitat loss. B. irregularis appears to be established on Saipan and Rota and the greatest threat to the species would come from the accidental introduction of B. irregularis to other islands in its range.

Conservation Actions Underway
A captive breeding conservation program was established by officials of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and a consortium of AZA facilities making up the MAC group (H. Roberts in litt. 2009).   Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations, particularly those in the Northern Marianas. Restrict hunting in the Northern Marianas. Set aside and protect areas of habitat which support good numbers of the species. Take measures, e.g. snake barriers around ports, to prevent the introduction of B. irregularis to islands which are currently snake-free.  Further develop the captive breeding programme to support future reintroductions and supplementation.


References
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Craig, R. J. 1996. Seasonal population surveys and natural history of a Micronesian bird community. Wilson Bulletin 108: 246-267.

Engbring, J.; Ramsey, F. L.; Wildman, V. J. 1982. Micronesian forest bird survey, 1982: Saipan, Tinian, Agiguan, and Rota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu.

Engbring, J.; Ramsey, F. L.; Wildman, V. J. 1990. Micronesian forest bird surveys, the Federated States: Pohnpei, Kosrae, Chuuk, and Yap. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu.

Gibbs, D.; Barnes, E.; Cox, J. 2001. Pigeons and doves: a guide to the pigeons and doves of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Jenkins, J. M. 1983. The native forest birds of Guam. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Derhé, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A.

Contributors
Roberts, H., Wiles, G.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Alopecoenas xanthonurus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Temminck, 1823)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species