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Negros Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba keayi
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This species has an extremely small, severely fragmented population that is likely to be undergoing a continuing decline owing to forest loss on the two islands where it occurs. For these reasons, it is listed as Critically Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Blood-red, narrow central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent green crown, nape, lesser wing-coverts, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts, glossed deep reddish-purple, with broad greyish-white band across inner wing-coverts. Buff belly merging into creamy-white vent and undertail-coverts. Voice. Two monosyllabic hu calls, sometimes huhu call inserted into bouts of song. The songs consist of trills of rapidly repeated syllables. It can also be distinguished from other doves e.g. Emerald Dove and White-eared Brown Dove by its soft coo and a high-pitched uu-oom (Curio 2001). Hints Feeds on the forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed. Male utters long-distance territorial calls before and after being flushed by humans (Curio 2001).

Distribution and population
Gallicolumba keayi is endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on Panay and Negros (Collar et al. 1999). On Panay, it was recorded in 1997 at two sites on the north-west peninsula, having been reported by locals at five sites earlier in the decade. Since then birds have been recorded nesting in the same area and further observations of the species have been made (Slade et al. 2005). On Negros, it was fairly common in the 19th century, but had become extremely rare by the 1930s. Since 1980, it was recorded at just one locality (above Mambucal), despite several weeks of surveys, with unconfirmed local reports from six additional localities. Recent research identified a few small populations in southern Negros, but it may now be extinct in the north (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 2005, P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010). It seems unlikely that more than a few hundred individuals remain on each island, although as Panay retains more forest cover, it is likely that this population is larger (P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 50-249 mature individuals, based on the assessment in BirdLife International (2001) that it "seems unlikely that there are more than a few hundred individuals... on each island [Panay and Negros], and there may only be a few tens". This estimate equates to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification
On Negros, it was fairly common in the 19th century, but had become extremely rare by the 1930s. Extensive forest loss has occurred, compromising the area of suitable habitat left within its range.

This predominantly terrestrial species appears to prefer dense closed-canopy forests from 300-1,000 m, exceptionally to 1,200 m, although reports suggests it tolerates secondary habitats on Panay where it has been recorded from selectively logged forest on limestone, and from open and severely degraded forest with few large trees (Slade et al. 2005, J. Bucol in litt. 2007). It seems unlikely that it undertakes more than very local movements in response to food patchiness. It has been recorded nesting in May and June with chicks fledging after only 12 days, apparently as an adaptation to the vulnerability of their open and low nests in epiphytic ferns (Slade et al. 2005). It has also been recorded nesting in March (Curio 2001). Nests appear to be regularly predated (Slade et al. 2005).

Primary forests have been almost totally destroyed on Negros (where just 4% of any type of forest cover remained in 1988) and Panay (where 8% remained). Habitat degradation, through clearance for agriculture, timber and charcoal-burning, continues to pose a serious threat to remaining fragments. Secondary forest appears to be unsuitable for the species; it is not found in one of the only remaining areas of secondary forest on Negros (Baptista et al. 2015). Trapping and hunting for food and, presumably, for the cage-bird trade are also threats. In 2005, five birds were killed by poachers in Negros (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 2005). A number of nests have been depredated, although it is unknown whether this is by native or introduced predators.

Conservation Actions Underway
The only recent records are from Mt Canlaon Natural Park, Mantikil, and in the Calinawan Community-based wildlife sanctuary on Negros (J. Bucol in litt. 2007). Local reports also derive from the North Negros Forest Reserve, and another area where it was formerly recorded (Mt Talinis/Twin Lakes on Negros) has been receiving funding for conservation actions (J. Bucol in litt. 2007). In the mid-1990s, the species featured on a bilingual environmental awareness poster as part of the "Only in the Philippines" series. It was used also as main logo in a photo exhibit "Wet and Wild" held at the Provincial Convention Center, Oriental Negros in November 2007 (J. Bucol in litt. 2007). It has been studied as part of the Philippine Endemic Species Project (PhilConserve) (Slade et al. 2005). The North Negros Forest Natural Park was declared by Presidential Decree in 2006. Efforts are ongoing to strengthen protected area management and involve Negros Forests and Ecological Foundation, Inc. (NFEFI) and Silliman University - Angelo King Center for Research and Environmental Management (SUAKCREM) as well as other existing local non-government organisations and people's organisations in the protection of the species. It was bred for the first time in captivity in 2007 at the Center for Tropical Conservation Studies, Philippines (H. Roberts in litt. 2009), and a very small number of captive individuals have been bred at the A. Y. Reyes Zoological and Botanical Gardens: in 2007, two chicks hatched, although one died (Hirschfeld 2008). Three birds salvaged from the illegal bird trade in captivity have produced eight young so far, and the total captive population now numbers 18 birds (Hirschfeld 2008). Captive breeding is being orchestrated by the Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Foundation, and there are plans for future re-introductions (P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct fieldwork in all areas from which the species has been locally reported and all other sites where suitable habitat remains, including the Bulabong Puti-an National Park. Establish the proposed 100 km2 North-west Panay Peninsula National Park, where the species has recently been discovered, and develop captive breeding populations. Provide immediate effective protection for the North Negros Forest Reserve. Encourage careful reforestation activities around remaining forests and law enforcement to stop small-scale yet rampant illegal logging.

Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M., Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. and Sharpe, C.J. 2015. Negros Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba keayi). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Curio, E. 2001. Taxonomic status of the Negros Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba keayi from Panay, Philippines, with notes on its behaviour. Forktail 17: 13-19.

Hirschfeld, E. 2008. Rare Birds Yearbook 2009: the world's 190 most threatened birds. MagDig Media Ltd., Shrewsbury, UK.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Slade, E.M.; Villaneuva, J. F.; Tacud, B.; Curio, E. 2005. First nesting observations of the Negros Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba keayi from Panay, Philippines. Forktail 21: 161-163.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Lowen, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Ashpole, J

Bucol, J., Carino, A., Hornbuckle, J. & Hospodarsky, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Gallicolumba keayi. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Negros bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba keayi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Clarke, 1900)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species