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Luzon Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba luzonica

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it probably has a moderately small population, which is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing primarily to hunting and logging. It is very secretive and further information may require it to be uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Gallicolumba luzonica is endemic to Luzon (where it is everywhere scarce or rare), Philippines, in the Sierra Madre south to Quezon National Park and Mt Makiling, with a recent report from Mt Bulusan in the south, and also Polillo (recently rediscovered probably very rare) and Catanduanes (single specimen) (Collar et al. 1999).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as usually rather scarce or rare (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline, owing to habitat loss and degradation, and hunting.

Ecology
This species is found in lowland forest (below 1,400 m), including selectively logged and otherwise poor secondary growth and even plantations. It forages on the ground, searching the leaf-litter for seeds, fallen fruits and invertebrates (Gibbs et al. 2001).


Threats
The species is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation through deforestation for timber extraction and agricultural expansion. It is vulnerable to snaring for the pet trade, but remains widespread and locally numerous.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Captive populations in Europe and North America are formally managed (Webster and Michael in litt. 2009). The number in captivity in North America has remained around 75 since 1988. A Population Management Plan was developed in 2009 by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums with the aim of reaching 100 birds in the North American zoo population. In-situ conservation efforts are also reported to be underway (Webster and Michael in litt. 2009).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size using playback. Regularly monitor to determine population trends. Investigate the extent of hunting by local residents. Control hunting where possible, perhaps using awareness campaigns. Protect significant areas of intact forest throughout its range. Attempt to rediscover the population on Catanduanes.

References
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Gibbs, D.; Barnes, E.; Cox, J. 2001. Pigeons and doves: a guide to the pigeons and doves of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Michael, G., Webster, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gallicolumba luzonica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Luzon bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba luzonica) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Scopoli, 1786)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 108,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species