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NR
 Geotrygon saphirina

This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Geotrygon purpurata and G. sapharina (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as G. sapharina following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)."

Identification
22-26 cm. Greyish dove with distinctive dorsal sapphire sheen. Green to purple mantle, sapphire rump, dark tail, brown wings with blackish tips. Greyish head with black chinstrap, with blue crown in north of its range and blackish crown in south. Underparts greyish. Voice A repeated, high-pitched ca-whoooo... ca-whoooo. Hints Tends to walk into denser cover rather than flying. Usually seen singly, or in well separated pairs.

Distribution and population
Geotrygon saphirina occurs in north-west South America (del Hoyo et al. 1997). Subspecies purpurata is found in Colombia, where it is uncommon (Restall et al. 2006). Its range extends south to north-west Ecuador; this taxon is rare in the country, as is the nominate subspecies saphirina, which ranges from east Ecuador to south-east Peru and extreme west Amazonian Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Restall et al. 2006). It is also thought likely to exist in south-east Colombia. Subspecies rothschildi is known only from Cadena in the Mareapata Valley, south-east Peru. The species is very locally distributed throughout its range (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Ecology
This is an undergrowth and forest floor species of lowland and montane evergreen forests, and advanced secondary growth. It generally occurs between 600-1,100 m. It probably feeds on seeds and small invertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Threats

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is also susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Restall, R.; Rodner, C.; Lentino, M. 2006. Birds of northern South America: an identification guide. Volume 1: species accounts. Christopher Helm, London.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N. & Symes, A.

Contributors
Lees, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Geotrygon saphirina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Not Recognised
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Bonaparte, 1855