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Tolima Dove Leptotila conoveri
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Justification
This species is known from a very small number of locations and habitat fragmentation, loss and degradation are continuing within its very small range. The population is almost certainly very small, fragmented and declining. It is therefore classified as Endangered. It is considered nationally Endangered in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
25 cm. Plump, buff-bellied terrestrial dove. Blue-grey crown to nape becoming dark brown on the rest of upperparts. White forehead and throat, with dark vinaceous-buff sides of neck and upper breast in sharp contrast to buff lower breast and abdomen. Slaty-brown tail with small white tips to outermost feathers. Cinnamon-rufous wing-coverts visible in flight. White eye with bare, bright red eye-ring. Black bill and pink legs. Similar spp. All other Colombian Leptotila spp. have whitish (not deep buff) bellies. In range, only confusable with White-tipped Dove L. verreauxi, which also differs in white crown and more extensive white tail tips. Voice Unknown but probably like other Leptotila spp.

Distribution and population
Leptotila conoveri occurs on the east slope of the Central Andes of Colombia. It is known only from the valleys of the Coello-Combeima river system, near Ibagué, Tolima, and two valleys in the headwaters of the río Magdalena, Huila. However, of the latter two valleys, there are no records from one since 1952. The small number of records suggests that its population is small. It is fairly common at one site in Tolima (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size; the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied, and previous population estimates of fewer than 2,500 mature individuals. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and ongoing population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
It occurs mainly in humid forest and bushy forest borders in the subtropical zone at 1,600-2,225 m, and possibly as high as 2,500 m. It has been found in secondary growth, with one record from a valley of coffee groves and secondary forest. Birds collected in Huila in March-April, and in Tolima in June, were in breeding condition.

Threats
Parts of the upper Magdalena valley have been converted to agriculture since the 18th century (Stiles et al. 1999) but, when the type-series was collected in 1942, the higher valleys of the Toche area, Tolima, were heavily forested. Since the 1950s, much of the original habitat in these valleys has been cleared and used for agriculture, including coffee plantations, potatoes, beans and cattle-grazing (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, López-Lanús et al. 2000). Mature secondary forest patches are now fragmented, and natural vegetation cover is judged to have been reduced to c.15% between 1,900 and 3,200 m (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, López-Lanús et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
It has not been recorded from any protected areas. However, an integrated conservation programme for the forests around the type-locality should benefit this and other threatened species in the area. Action for the Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis has increased public awareness and community involvement in conservation issues in the río Toche area, Tolima (Salaman et al. 1999b), which should also benefit L. conoveri. Conservation Actions Proposed
Evaluate forest cover in its range and follow-up with surveys of larger blocks to determine the current population and distribution (López-Lanús et al. 2000). Investigate the ecological requirements of this species, especially the degree to which it tolerates modified habitats, and apply this in the development of a captive breeding programme. Protect a stronghold area, if found (López-Lanús et al. 2000).

References
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Lopez-Lanus, B., Laverde, O., Omena, R. and Olarte, L.G. 2009. Lack of evidence for the presence of macaws of the Anodorhynchus genus in the Colombian-Brazilian river basin of the Vaupes. Hornero 24(1): 37-41.

López-Lanús, B.; Salaman, P. G. W.; Cowley, T. P.; Arango, S.; Renjifo, L. M. 2000. The threatened birds of the Río Toche, Cordillera Central, Colombia. Cotinga 14: 17-23.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Salaman, P. G. W.; Donegan, T. M.; Cuervo, A. M. 1999. Ornithological surveys in Serranía de los Churumbelos, southern Colombia. Cotinga 12: 29-39.

Stiles, F. G.; Rosselli, L.; Bohórquez, C. I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 113-129.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Salaman, P.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leptotila conoveri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Tolima dove (Leptotila conoveri) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1943
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 970 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species