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Ochre-bellied Dove Leptotila ochraceiventris

Justification
This species has a small and severely fragmented range and population, both of which are suffering from rapid rates of deforestation. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
23-25 cm. Small, ground-dwelling dove. Whitish-pink forehead, grading to rusty-pink on crown and iridescent purple on hind crown and upper mantle. Dark olive rest of upperparts, with some bronzy-green on mantle and wing-coverts. White throat, buff neck, vinaceous breast and rest of underparts largely whitish. Similar spp. Partially sympatric White-tipped Dove L. verreauxi is obviously larger. Voice Distinctive throaty rrroowww, repeated at ten-second intervals.

Distribution and population
Leptotila ochraceiventris occurs in west Ecuador (Manabí, Los Ríos, Guayas, Chimborazo, El Oro and Loja) and north-west Peru (Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque). The population is small and fragmented, and it is common only at Campo Verde in Tumbes Reserved Zone (within the Northwest Peru Biosphere Reserve), north-west Peru (Parker et al. 1995, H. Lloyd in litt. 2007).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction.

Ecology
This inconspicuous dove inhabits tropical and subtropical forests, mainly at 500-1,800 m (with recent records at 80-200 m in Guayas [Baptista et al. 1997, Pople et al. 1997]), but also to sea-level and occasionally 2,625 m. It occurs in dry deciduous, wet lower montane, semi-deciduous cloud-forest, humid cloud-forest, evergreen moist forest and, prior to their destruction, moist forests of the río Guayas basin and Cordillera de Colonche. It is also found in heavily degraded forest, scrub and hedges, but it is unknown whether such habitats support viable populations. Generally solitary or in pairs (Parker and Carr 1992), but sometimes in groups of 3-7 (Parker et al. 1995), it favours areas with a dense understorey of small trees and woody vines (Baptista et al. 1997). Inter-habitat, seasonal movements are apparently undertaken. Its ecology is virtually unknown.

Threats
Below 900 m, the rate of deforestation in west Ecuador, in 1958-1988, was 57% per decade, although in higher parts of the species's range, with a steeper terrain and harsher climate, the process has been slower, and a greater proportion of forest is extant (Dodson and Gentry 1991). Overgrazing degrades the forest understorey which is this species' habitat (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001). All pigeon species are hunted, but L. ochraceiventris is not specifically targeted (Jiggins et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas, including Tumbes Reserved Zone (which protects a large area and range of forest-types and presumably supports a viable population) (Dodson and Gentry 1991), Laquipampa Reserved Zone (J. Flanagan in litt. 2001), Machalilla National Park (Guayas/Manabí), Manglares-Churute Ecological Reserve and Cerro Blanco Protection Forest (Guayas) (Parker and Carr 1992, Wege and Long 1995, Pople et al. 1997). The 776 km2 partially forested Chongón-Colonche Protection Forest is the nucleus of a reforestation project (E. Horstmann in litt. 2000) and may support the species. A communal reserve is being established at Quebrada Limon (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess seasonal reliance on particular forest-types. Control threats to habitat within protected areas. Expand protected areas to include adjacent forest remnants and connect such fragments. Map forest in the Cordillera Chongón-Colonche to identify sites for protection (E. Horstmann in litt. 2000). Assess impact of hunting.

References
Baptista, L. F.; Trail, P. W.; Horblit, H. M. 1997. Family Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world v.4, pp. 60-243. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Best, B. J. 1994. Focus on: Ochre-bellied Dove Leptotila ochraceiventris. Cotinga: 30-33.

Best, B. J.; Clarke, C. T.; Checker, M.; Broom, A. L.; Thewlis, R. M.; Duckworth, W.; McNab, A. 1993. Distributional records, natural history notes, and conservation of some poorly known birds from southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113: 108-109, 234-255.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Dodson, C. H.; Gentry, A. H. 1991. Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78: 273-295.

Jiggins, C. D.; Andrade, P.; Cueva, E.; Dixon, S.; Isherwood, I.; Willis, J. 1999. The conservation of three forests in south west Ecuador: Reserva Natural El Tundo, Hacienda Jujal and Tambo Negro.

Parker, T. A.; Carr, J. L. 1992. Status of forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador (Rapid Assessment Program). Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Parker, T. A.; Schulenberg, T. S.; Kessler, M.; Wust, W. H. 1995. Natural history and conservation of the endemic avifauna in north-west Peru. Bird Conservation International 5: 201-231.

Pople, R. G.; Burfield, I. J.; Clay, R. P.; Cope, D. R.; Kennedy, C. P.; López Lanús, B.; Reyes, J.; Warren, B.; Yagual, E. 1997. Bird surveys and conservation status of three sites in western Ecuador: final report of Project Ortalis '96. CSB Publications, Cambridge, UK.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Flanagan, J., Horstman, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leptotila ochraceiventris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Ochre-bellied dove (Leptotila ochraceiventris) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Chapman, 1914
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,500 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species