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Purple-winged Ground-dove Claravis geoffroyi
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Justification
The combination of specialised ecological requirements, and the loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat severely threaten this species. The paucity of records in the last decade suggests that this species now has an extremely small population that is highly fragmented and declining owing to continuing habitat loss. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered. It is considered Critically Endangered in Brazil (MME 2003).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Use of the specific name geoffroyi follows SACC (2011).

Synonym(s)
Claravis godefrida (Temminck, 1811)

Identification
19-23 cm. Distinctive ground-dove. Male slate-blue above, paler below. Whitish face and belly. White tail with grey central rectrices. Two or three dark purple bands across wing, edged white. Dark red legs, blackish bill. Female matt brown with paler belly and throat. Wing-bands less purple. Central rectrices brown, outers black with broad buff tips. Dark brown legs. Similar spp. Male Blue Ground-dove C. pretiosa is richer blue, and has black wing spots and outer rectrices. Female is more rufescent, especially rump and central rectrices. Voice Has been described as a plaintive u-ut, but there are no known recordings (A. Bodrati in litt. 2012).

Distribution and population
Claravis geoffroyi was fairly common at the beginning of the 20th century, judging by the wide scatter of specimen records and reports of flocks of up to 100 birds. At that time it occurred from Bahia (Brazil), south through eastern Brazil to northern Argentina and eastern Paraguay, from sea-level to 2,300 m. In the last twenty years there have been several reports of 1-3 individuals, including one from eastern Paraguay in 1994 (Lowen et al. 1996) and a few from Brazilian sites such as Itatiaia (2004, possible in 2006); Ubatuba (1997 and 2004) and Intervales (2003 and 2007); and Urubici (1997), these being in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Santa Catarina respectively (Naka et al. 2000, Mazar Barnett et al. 2005, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 2006, J. Pedro in litt. 2009, A. Whittaker in litt. 2009). In Argentina there are records from Iguazú, Misiones Province, in 1990 (Chebez 2008) and 1991 (F. Lambert per J. Tobias in litt. 2006), and more recently a female was seen twice there in November 2007 (Areta et al. 2009, Bodrati 2009). These reports are almost certainly reliable, but none are documented. There are also recent Brazilian records from coastal Paraná and Espirito Santo, the latter involving 3-5 birds (Carrano et al. 2004, Simon 2004). The paucity of recent records, and the fact that none describe groups of more than five birds, suggest that extremely severe declines have occurred. Its range is now highly fragmented; this coupled with its specialised habitat requirements appear to render the species highly vulnerable to extinction. Extensive targeted searches during Guadua chacoensis masting in Argentina turned up only the two 2007 records mentioned above (A. Bodrati in litt. 2012).




Population justification
The population is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals, equating to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals. Dedicated surveys and quantified population estimates would be desirable to confirm this.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be declining at a rate of 1-19% over ten years, in line with habitat loss within its highly fragmented range. Given the patchy nature, spatially and temporally, of bamboo stands, and the known impact that habitat fragmentation has had on other semi-colonial columbiformes historically, it may have declined or be continuing to decline at a much more rapid rate, with serious conservation implications.

Ecology
It inhabits humid Atlantic forest, apparently with a preference for edge habitats in rather hilly, broken terrain. Records range from near sea-level to 2,300 m. All known records of the species in Argentina coincide with flowering events of only two species of bamboos: takuarusu Guadua chacoensis and yatevo G.trinii (Areta et al. 2009). Since it depends on bamboo seeds, and most species of bamboos produce seeds synchronously over large areas and only after many years of vegetative growth, the species must travel widely between patches of seeding bamboo (Bodrati 2009). Its Andean relative Maroon-chested Ground-dove C. mondetoura is rarely found away from patches of flowering or seeding bamboo where it gathers to forage and breed, sometimes semi-colonially (Tobias et al. 2006). Assuming their ecological requirements are similar C. godefrida probably undertakes irregular nomadic movements following bamboo flowerings, but it has been recorded eating other seeds (including those of sedges and grasses) and fruit. Breeding apparently occurs in the austral summer, with birds calling from November to February (Naka et al. 2000). Historically it was reported in flocks of up to 100, but no recent records have involved more than five individuals. 

Threats
The clearance and fragmentation of Atlantic forest for colonisation and the expansion of plantation agriculture (Dinerstein et al. 1995) have increased the physical and temporal distances between bamboo flowerings. Given its apparently highly specialised requirements, it is not inconceivable that this fragmentation is already too extensive to ensure the long-term survival of the species. It is uncommon in trade, but the taking of additional birds from the wild must have a considerable impact on such a small population.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected by Brazilian law, and has been recorded in a number of protected areas in Brazil, including the Floresta Estadual do Palmito (Paraná), the Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve (Espirito Santo), and several sites in the Serra do Mar. It is also reported from Iguazú National Park, Argentina. However, numbers observed are small and no population is known to be adequately protected. The small captive population held by a few Brazilian aviculturists has apparently died out. Surveys were planned to take place in March-June 2009 in northern Misiones, Argentina to coincide with a flowering event of takuarusu bamboo, aiming to find and document presence of the species at flowering bamboo, obtain a tape recording and study its biology (Bodrati 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Urgently survey to locate additional populations, using tape-playback if possible, and focusing search on bamboo flowering events. Record and document its vocalisations. Develop a CMS agreement for this and other bamboo specialists. Study basic aspects of its biology (feeding, habitat use, breeding) to determine measures needed to conserve the species. Consider protecting the appropriate species of bamboo through existing legislation (such as Provincial Natural Monuments in Misiones) on all public and private land (Bodrati 2009).

References
Areta, J. I.; Bodrati, A.; Cockle, K. 2009. Specialization on Guadua bamboo seeds by three bird species in the Atlantic forest of Argentina. Biotropica 41(1): 66-73.

Bodrati, A. 2009. Grant Application to Birdfair/RSPB Research Fund for Endangered Birds.

Carrano, E.; Santos, R.E. F.; Patrial, E.W.; Ribas, C. F.; Klemann-Júnior, L. 2004. Composiçao e conservaçao des aves na floresta estuadal do Palmito, Município de Paranaguá, Paraná. Resumos do XII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia, pp. 189. Universidade Regionale de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.

Chebez, J. C. 1994. Los que se van: especies argentinas en peligro. Albatros, Buenos Aires.

Chebez, J. C. 2008. Los que se van. Fauna Argentina amenazada. 2. Aves. Editorial Albatros Saci, Buenos Aires.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

MMA. 2003. Lista Nacional das Espécies da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Naka, L. N.; Barnett, J. M.; Kirwan, G. M.; Tobias, J. A.; de Azevedo, A. G. 2000. New and noteworthy bird records from Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 120: 237-250.

Saibene, C. A.; Castelino, M. A.; Rey, N. R.; Herrera, J.; Calo, J. 1996. Inventario de las aves del parque nacional "Iguazu", Misiones, Argentina. LOLA, Buenos Aires.

Simon, J. E. 2004. Registro de aves raras com a frutificaçao de taquaras na regiao de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Resumos do XII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 381.

Tobias, J. A.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J. 2006. Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding: 4-22.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Temple, H., Williams, R.

Contributors
Kirwan, G., Malacco, G., Olmos, F., Pedro, J., Tobias, J., Whittaker, A., Cockle, K., Bodrati, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Claravis geoffroyi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Purple-winged ground-dove (Claravis geoffroyi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Temminck, 1811)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species