This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a single, small population which is presumed to be declining owing to current rates of clearance of mid-altitude forests, combined with hunting pressure.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Distribution and populationLophura hoogerwerfi
46-55 cm. Short-tailed pheasant. Male uniform, dark bluish-black with some indistinct pale bluish fringing to upperparts, bare red facial skin and grey bill and legs (Szer et al. 2006). Female (shown here) rufous-brown with some fine pale vermiculations, dark, rounded tail and dark grey legs. Both sexes have a prominent yellow eye-ring. Similar spp. Female Salvadori's Pheasant L. inornata has pale shaft streaks and more prominent pale blotching/vermiculations to plumage, but males may be indistinguishable. Female Crested Fireback L. ignita has crest, longer tail and white scaling on underparts. Female Crestless Fireback L. erythrophthalma lacks blue fringing to upperparts. Voice Undocumented.
is endemic to northern Sumatra, Indonesia
. It is known historically from two females (both collected) and a male (glimpsed), in the Gayo Highlands, Aceh province, within what is now the Gunung Leuser National Park. In 1979, there were several sightings of family parties in the Mamas Valley of this park and, in 1998, a female was observed above the River Jagong in the Beutong region, just north of Leuser. In 1998-1999, five individuals of each sex were recovered from a bird market in Medan, northern Sumatra. All are said to have originated from Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh province. A female was observed on a nest with eggs in the Batang Toru Forest in October 2008 (Peters et al
. in prep.). In July 2010, a family group (at least a pair and one chick) of Lophura
pheasants, likely to be this species, were reported from the Toba Highlands, North Sumatra province (M. Iqbal in litt.
2010). Also in July 2010, a pair, thought to be of this species, were found for sale in Tele (north of Toba Lake), North Sumatra, and the species was reported to be common in Eucalyptus woodlands and agricultural land in the area (van Balen et al
. 2011). On-going contraction of suitable forest habitat must be having an adverse effect on the population. There are birds (of wild origin) in captivity on Java.Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.Trend justification
The species is suspected to be in decline owing to the fragmentation and degradation of its habitat, as well as hunting pressure. The likely rate of decline, however, has not been estimated.Ecology
The type-specimen was shot in forest (reasonably assumed to be tropical, lower montane rainforest) adjacent to the mountain lake Telaga Meluwak at 1,200-1,400 m. The general area was described as hilly ground covered with heavy primary jungle, but with little undergrowth. The other female was collected at 600 m. The observations in the Mamas Valley were of birds feeding on sparsely vegetated, open forest floor on relatively dry mountain slopes, at 1,200-2,000 m. The possible sighting in the Toba Highlands was described as being in a timber plantation planted with eucalyptus species at c.1,500 m, and it has reportedly been trapped at the edge of forest in this region, suggesting some tolerance of habitat modification (M. Iqbal in litt.
2010). The incubating female recorded at Batang Toru Forest in 2008 was found at 1,021 m (Peters et al
. in prep.).Threats
Apparently suitable habitat within its putative range has been reduced and fragmented below c.1,000-1,500 m, owing to agricultural encroachment, large-scale timber extraction and the attendant risk of wildfires, even within Gunung Leuser National Park. Hunting presumably also poses a threat, with the species recorded in a bird market in Medan, North Sumatra, for the first time in 1999 (Shepherd et al
. 2004), and subsequently in following years, with a total of 20 individuals observed (Shepherd 2006, Shepherd and Nijman 2009). When questioned, traders in Medan claimed that the birds were taken from Gunung Leuser National Park via illegal logging roads (C. Shepherd in litt
. 2012). In addition, the trapping of Lophura
pheasants by the use of snares has been recorded in the Toba Highlands (M. Iqbal in litt.
2010).Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs within the Gunung Leuser National Park, which covers 9,460 km2
from sea-level to almost 3,500 m. Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify its taxonomic relationship with L. inornata
using DNA-sequencing techniques. If taxonomically distinct, advocate full protection for the species under Indonesian law. Conduct extensive surveys (including Gunung Leuser National Park, adjacent regions, e.g. the Batak highlands, and other possible locations) to establish the species's range, altitudinal distribution and habitat requirements. Assess the nature and scale of key threats affecting Gunung Leuser National Park and advocate the control of illegal tree-felling and illegal bird trapping. Encourage Indonesian authorities to monitor and take enforcement action against traders selling the species in markets (C. Shepherd in litt
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Keane, A.M.; Garson, P.J.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Pheasants: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.
Sözer, R.; Shepherd, C. R.; Darjono. 2006. First description of male Hoogerwerf's Pheasant Lophura (inornata) hoogwerfi (Chasen, 1939), with notes on distribution. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126(3): 207-211.
Shepherd, C. 2006. The bird trade in Medan, north Sumatra: an overview. BirdingASIA: 16-24.
Shepherd, C. R. 2000. Some notes on the trade of rare pheasants in Indonesia.
Shepherd, C. R.; Nijman, V. 2009. Trade of Galliformes in Indonesia. The International Newsletter of the World Pheasant Association 82: 6.
Shepherd, C.R., Sukumaran, J. and Wich, S.A. 2004. Open season: an analysis of the pet trade in Medan, Sumatra, 1997-2001. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Selangor, Malaysia.
van Balen, S.; Noske, R.; Supriatna, A. A. 2011. Around the Archipelago. Kukila 15: 126-143.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J.
Brickle, N., Iqbal, M., Lambert, F., Randi, E., Shepherd, C.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Lophura hoogerwerfi. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species