This species was formerly distributed across North America, but is now Extinct as a result of habitat clearance and hunting. The last reliable wild record dates from 1900, and a search beginning in 1910 failed to find it.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened birds of the world, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Blockstein, D. E.; Tordoff, H. B. 1985. Gone forever: a contemporary look at the extinction of the Passenger Pigeon. American Birds 39(5): 845-851.
Bucher, E. H. 1992. The causes of extinction of the Passenger Pigeon. Current Ornithology 9: 1-36.
Halliday, T. R. 1980. The extintion of the Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius and its relevance to contemporary conservation. Biological Conservation 17: 157-167.
Schorger, A. W. 1955. The Passenger Pigeon: its natural history and extinction. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA.
Wilcove, D. 1989. In memory of Martha and her kind. Audubon 91: 52-55.
Text account compilers
Brooks, T., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Ectopistes migratorius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Extinct|
|Family||Columbidae (Doves and pigeons)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|