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Swinhoe's Pheasant Lophura swinhoii
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This pheasant has a small population, of unknown sub-population structure, occupying a small range, which is not severely fragmented, but is contracting owing to habitat degradation. It is probably secure within protected areas, but these are likely to become isolated in the long term owing to habitat loss outside their boundaries. This combination of factors qualifies this species as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Lophura swinhoii is endemic to the mountains of central Taiwan (China). Intensive fieldwork in the early 1970s suggested that there might be 5,000-10,000 individuals, although a recent estimate of c.6,500 in Yushan National Park alone indicates that its total population is likely to exceed 10,000 birds. The species became extinct at several localities in the 1960s and 1970s, but it apparently remains common in suitable habitat, and it has populations in several protected areas. Its numbers are probably stable where it is protected, but may be declining elsewhere because of a variety of pressures on its habitat.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.5,000-10,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2001), roughly equivalent to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals. The population in Taiwan has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs.

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining outside of protected areas, owing to habitat degradation. This suggests that the overall population is declining slowly.

It inhabits primary broadleaved forest and mature secondary forest at 200-2,300 m.

Heavy hunting pressure was a problem for it in the past, but is no longer a serious threat. Deforestation is still a threat outside protected areas, there is the risk that sub-populations will become isolated in the future.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of the population. Regularly monitor the population at selected sites. Asses the effect of hunting outside of protected areas. Enforce the protection afforded to the species by the national parks. Control logging outside protected areas to ensure connectivity between habitat patches.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Lophura swinhoii. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Swinhoe’s pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Gould, 1863)
Population size 3300-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15,300 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species