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LC
European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,510,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,510,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,500,000-7,200,000 breeding pairs, equating to 10,500,000-21,600,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 20,000,000-100,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation. In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Comoros Vagrant Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant Yes      
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes      
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant Yes      
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Liberia Vagrant Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant Yes      
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Namibia Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant Yes      
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Pakistan Vagrant Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Vagrant Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant Yes      
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Vagrant Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Italy Selva del Lamone site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Streptopelia turtur. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,510,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species