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LC
European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,510,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,510,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,500,000-7,200,000 breeding pairs, equating to 10,500,000-21,600,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 20,000,000-100,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation. In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Native Extant Yes    
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant Yes   Yes
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Native Extant Yes    
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Comoros Vagrant Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes    
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ireland Native Extant Yes    
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Vagrant Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes
Liberia Vagrant Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Namibia Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes    
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant Yes   Yes
Pakistan Vagrant Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant Yes   Yes
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant Yes    
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Vagrant Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant Yes    
Sudan Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Togo Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Vagrant Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Streptopelia turtur. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Columbidae (Doves and pigeons)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,510,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species