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Peruvian Pigeon Patagioenas oenops

Justification
This species has been recorded at few locations within a small range. Habitat loss and degradation are presumably causing declines in both range and its small population. The species therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Columba oenops Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Columba oenops Stotz et al. (1996), Columba oenops Collar and Andrew (1988), Columba oenops Collar et al. (1994), Columba oenops BirdLife International (2000), Columba oenops BirdLife International (2004)

Identification
31-34 cm. Medium-sized, grey-and-rufous pigeon. Grey-brown head. Purplish-brown underparts, paler on throat. Grey lower belly and vent. Upperparts, inner wing-coverts and scapulars chestnut tinged purplish. Rest of wing grey, dusky remiges. Grey rump, darker uppertail-coverts. Blackish tail. Bluish-grey bill with red base. Similar spp. Pale-vented Pigeon C. cayennensis is drabber, with less rufous on wing and grey tail. Voice Not reported. Hints In small groups, best located in favoured fruiting trees.

Distribution and population
Patagioenas oenops occupies a restricted range in north Peru, principally in the upper Marañón valley (Cajamarca and Amazonas), and regularly at one site in La Libertad (Clements and Shany 2001), with one record from Piura. There are also recent sight records in extreme south-east Ecuador (P. Coopmans per R. S. Ridgely in litt. 1994, Ridgely et al. 1998). It is generally relatively uncommon, but scarce in heavily populated areas in the north of its range, and relatively common in a comparatively inaccessible area near Balsas (upper río Marañón) in 1975 and 1999, and on the río Comboca, in the south Cordillera de Colán in 1994 (Wege and Long 1995, Davies et al. 1997, Begazo et al. 2001). Recent surveys of the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas, suggest it is tolerant of some forest degradation (Clements and Shany 2001), but this threat must be causing a population decline.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
It inhabits riparian woodland, dominated by the willow Salix humbertiana, and adjacent dry forest on steep valley slopes, mainly at 850-2,400 m. It has also been recorded in degraded, humid premontane forest (Davies et al. 1997) and around mango orchards (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt 1998). It appears to make limited seasonal elevational movements. Its ecology is very poorly known, with virtually no data on feeding, although it has been seen eating ripe coca seeds (Baptista et al. 1997), and singles and pairs have been recorded in fruiting trees (including Cordia lutea) (Davies et al. 1997, Begazo 2001). The only breeding data refers to a juvenile collected in April.

Threats
It probably suffers some hunting pressure. The gradual degradation and loss of its already naturally restricted habitat are presumably causing a population decline, although surveys of the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas suggest it is tolerant of some forest degradation (Clements and Shany 2001). Its relative abundance within inaccessible areas, and scarcity in heavily populated regions suggests that these threats have already resulted in significant decreases.

Conservation Actions Underway
There are no protected areas within this species's range. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to establish the precise limits of its range, population levels and trends, and conservation requirements (Baptista et al. 1997). Research its ecology. Designate protected areas within the upper río Marañón valley, e.g. in the Cordillera de Colán (Wege and Long 1995, Davies et al. 1997).

References
Baptista, L. F.; Trail, P. W.; Horblit, H. M. 1997. Family Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world v.4, pp. 60-243. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Begazo, A. J. 2001. Photo Spot: Peruvian pigeon Columba oenops.. Cotinga 15: 95-96.

Begazo, A.J., Valqui, T., Sokol, M. and Langlois, E. 2001. Notes on some birds from central and northern Peru. Cotinga 15: 81-87.

Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Davies, C. W. N.; Barnes, R.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Fernandez, M.; Seddon, N. 1997. The conservation status of birds on the Cordillera de Colán, Peru. Bird Conservation International 7: 181-195.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J.; Guerrero, M. 1998. An annotated list of the birds of mainland Ecuador. Fundación Ornitológica del Ecuador, CECIA, Quito.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Ridgely, R., Rowlett, R., Webster, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Patagioenas oenops. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Peruvian pigeon (Patagioenas oenops) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Salvin, 1895
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species