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White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type shelf island
continent
Average mass 238 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 236,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -
Population justification: Rich et al. (2003)
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline overall owing to ongoing habitat degradation and unsustainable levels of hunting, although the small population in the USA is increasing (based on Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant Yes      
Bahamas Native Extant Yes      
Belize Native Extant Yes      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Colombia Native Extant Yes      
Costa Rica Vagrant Extant        
Cuba Native Extant Yes      
Dominica Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Dominican Republic Native Extant Yes      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant       Yes
Guatemala Native Extant       Yes
Haiti Native Extant Yes      
Honduras Native Extant Yes      
Jamaica Native Extant       Yes
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Mexico Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant Yes      
Panama Native Extant Yes      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant Yes      
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant   Yes    
St Lucia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
St Martin (to France) Native Extant       Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant       Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Valley site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Wallings Forest site factsheet
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Cay Sal site factsheet
Bahamas Driggs Hill to Mars Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Great Inagua site factsheet
Bahamas Grog Pond site factsheet
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park site factsheet
Bahamas Lee Stocking Island site factsheet
Bahamas Little Abaco site factsheet
Bahamas Mangrove Cay site factsheet
Bahamas Red Bays site factsheet
Bahamas South Tarpum Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Tee Cay, Goat Cay and Long Rocks site factsheet
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands site factsheet
Belize Belize Off-shore and Barrier Islands site factsheet
Belize Northeastern Belize site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Bluff Forest site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Booby Pond Nature Reserve site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Botanic Park and Salina Reserve site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Crown Wetlands site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Franklin's Forest site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Mastic Reserve site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Sparrowhawk Hill site factsheet
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower site factsheet
Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt site factsheet
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara site factsheet
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas site factsheet
Cuba Cayos Romano - Cruz - Megano Grande site factsheet
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud site factsheet
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Cauto site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Mayarí site factsheet
Cuba Desembarco del Granma site factsheet
Cuba Gibara site factsheet
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila site factsheet
Cuba Guanahacabibes site factsheet
Cuba Hatibonico - Baitiquirí - Imías site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus site factsheet
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay site factsheet
Cuba Pico Cristal site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet
Cuba Siboney - Juticí site factsheet
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo site factsheet
Cuba Sierra del Rosario site factsheet
Cuba Topes de Collantes site factsheet
Cuba Turquino - Bayamesa site factsheet
Dominican Republic Del Este National Park site factsheet
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park site factsheet
Haiti Coquillage - Pointe Est site factsheet
Haiti Les Grottes site factsheet
Honduras Islas de la Bahía y Cayos Cochinos site factsheet
Jamaica Black River Great Morass site factsheet
Jamaica Bluefields site factsheet
Jamaica Catadupa site factsheet
Jamaica Cockpit Country site factsheet
Jamaica Dolphin Head site factsheet
Jamaica Hellshire Hills site factsheet
Jamaica John Crow Mountains site factsheet
Jamaica Litchfield Mountain - Matheson's Run site factsheet
Jamaica Negril site factsheet
Jamaica Portland Ridge and Bight site factsheet
Jamaica Yallahs site factsheet
Panama Bocas del Toro Archipelago site factsheet
Panama Isla Escudo de Veraguas (Escudo de Veraguas Island IBA) site factsheet
Panama San San Pond Sak Wetlands site factsheet
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Navassa site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Patagioenas leucocephala. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 236,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species